This page allows you to review previous and ongoing Shroud research. Here you will find, in their entirety whenever possible, links to papers and articles written about the Shroud of Turin. The papers are listed below alphabetically by title. You can also find them listed alphabetically by author on the Website Library page. Each listing includes a brief description of its content. Are you interested in submitting your own work for possible publication on this website? Please review our Submission Requirements for detailed instructions.
FIND PAPERS ALPHABETICALLY BY TITLE
Abrupt Changes in the Yellowed Fibril Density in the Linen of Turin, The by F. Curciarello, V. De Leo, G. Fazio and G. Mandaglio
This article appeared in Radiation Effects & Defects In Solids, Volume 167, Issue 3, 2012 [Dec 2013]
Against the Shroud. But With Mixed Cards by Emanuela Marinelli - English translation of Contro la Sindone. Ma a carte truccate (In Italian), Storia in Rete, n. 117-118, July/August 2015, pp. 28-38.
This is a link to Emanuela's in depth review of Shroud skeptic Andrea Nicolotti's Italian language book, Sindone - Storia e leggende di una reliquia controversa - Einaudi Storia, 2015 - Emanuela's review is available in both English and Italian languages at the above links.
Alice In Wonderland and the Shroud of Turin by Isabel Piczek - Alicia en el País de las Maravillas y la Sábana Santa de Turín (En Español) - Spanish translation by Pedro Vázquez
This article clearly addresses many of the questionable theories raised by recent books and articles in the popular press. The article includes 58 illustrations and may take a few minutes to load. Isabel Piczek is a noted monumental artist and theoretical physicist and a highly respected Shroud researcher. This presentation was originally delivered at the 1996 Esopus Conference.
An Alternate Hypothesis for the Image Color by Raymond N. Rogers [Written 11 September 2001, Published 31 August 2013]
In July 2013, Joe Marino sent me a scan of a paper he and Sue Benford received from Ray Rogers on September 11, 2001. When I reviewed it I realized that, although parts of the paper had been included in several other papers by Ray, as well as in his book, A Chemist's Perspective on the Shroud of Turin, nothing else Rogers wrote included all his observations and thoughts about image color in one dedicated article. So, with Joan Rogers' participation, we proof read and reformatted the paper and replaced the images with higher quality versions, and are making it available here on Shroud.com.
Analyzing Radiocarbon Data Using Burr Statistics by Remi Van Haelst [18 July 2011]
This article is so specialized and technical, no one on our editorial review committee felt qualified to review it! Thus, we are including it with the caveat that it has not really been vetted and invite any qualified viewers to send us their own reviews.
Anamorphosi (Anamorphosis) (In Italian) by Paolo Di Lazzaro and Daniele Murra - Academia.edu - October 2, 2015 [1 November 2015]
If you are interested in imaging, optics or photography, you might find this one page fully illustrated paper from our good friends at ENEA quite interesting. [FYI, anamorphosis is a distorted projection or drawing that appears normal when viewed from a particular point or with a suitable mirror or lens].
Ancient Bleaching Citations by Bill Meacham
Provides references to Pliny the Elder and ancient bleaching techniques. Originally posted to the Online Shroud Science Group [October 2010]
Answering A Skeptic by Barrie M. Schwortz
Response dated 16 May 2014 to an e-mail received from Gary A. Kentgen on 6 January 2014.
Answering the Savoy/Leonardo DaVinci Hypothesis by Richard B. Sorensen (.pdf format) [151k] [June 2005]
In this well researched article, Richard compiles and presents all the evidence regarding the infamous "Leonardo Theory" proposed by some researchers, and includes links to all of his references.
Antioch and the Shroud by Jack Markwardt (.pdf format) [78k]
A new theory of the cloth's history prior to the 6th century, illustrated with color transparencies.(From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Appraisal of the mistakes made regarding the Shroud samples taken in 1988 - and a suggested way of putting these behind us by Ian Wilson
Evaluación de los errores cometidos respecto a las muestras de la Sábana Santa obtenidas en 1988 y sugerencias para superarlos (En Español)
Ian Wilson's 1998 overview of the then current state of Shroud research and his plea for cooperation within the Shroud research community. This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium.
Ariel Agemian Biography by Annig Agemian Raley [15 July 2011]
Without doubt, the painting created by Armenian artist Ariel Agemian and based on the image of the Shroud, is world famous and has become one of the most beloved and iconic portrayals of Jesus of the 20th century. Although the image itself is well known, very few of us know much about the artist himself. I was fortunate to be contacted by his daughter, Annig Agemian Raley, who was kind enough to write a detailed biography of him that she has kindly allowed me to share here with you.
More On Ariel Agemian by Annig Agemian Raley [1 Nov 2011]
Further insights into the fascinating life of her father.
Authentic acid blood mordanted the madder-dyed Shroud of Turin pinkish red before image formation - Jesus was dead by A.A.M. van der Hoeven – Academia.edu - September 22, 2014 (corrected February 27, 2015) - 243 pages [16 August 2015]
This is far more than a "paper" as it is physically longer than many books. Here is just the first sentence of the abstract: "The chemical and physical properties of the Shroud of Turin, both of the non-image background, the image areas, the pinkish red bloodstains and the separate serum, especially their absorbance, fluorescence and FTIR spectra, are described and shown to be evidence for the presence of a pinkish red heme-madder complex, formed by the chemical interaction of authentic acid postmortem blood with yellow madder dye on the cloth before image formation."
Authentication of the Turin Shroud, The: An Issue in Archaeological Epistemology by William Meacham
Reprinted from the June 1983 edition of CURRENT ANTHROPOLOGY, this article not only makes an interesting argument for the authenticity of the Shroud, circa 1983, but also provides us with excellent insight into the workings of Shroud science. Included after the article itself is a Comments section, with a variety of critiques from many noted Shroud researchers. This includes a rather heated debate by experts on both sides of the authenticity argument, followed by the author's direct and often pointed reply to their comments. However, it provides a great perspective on the nature of Shroud science itself and I am pleased to be able to make it available to you. It is illustrated and includes eleven images. A special word of thanks to the University of Chicago Press for giving me permission to reprint it on this website and Maurizio Marinelli for digitizing the text and images.
Autopsy on the Man of the Shroud, An by Robert Bucklin, M.D., J.D.
Autopsia sobre el Hombre de la Sábana Santa - En Español
This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France, and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. The author was a world renown forensic pathologist and medical examiner, and formerly Deputy Coronor of Los Angeles, California and Las Vegas, Nevada. He was an avid Shroud researcher for over 50 years and provided a clear and expert medical interpretation of the man depicted on the cloth. In 1978, Dr. Bucklin was a member of STURP, the team that performed the first ever in-depth examination of the Shroud. He died on September 19, 2001. I was very proud that he allowed me to include his important work on this website.
Behind the Scenes of a New Smithsonian Channel Shroud Documentary by Barrie M. Schwortz [May 2013]
This article will give you a behind-the-scenes look at the events that took place over the two days in which I participated in the taping of the program and my personal assessment of the results and conclusions that were reached.
Bibliography of Major Sources Pertaining to the Events of the 1988 C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin by Joseph G. Marino [August 2012]
Well known in the Shroud world, Joe Marino provides another carefully researched reference article for those interested in studying the C-14 dating and the events surrounding it.
Bl Sebastian Valfrè: The Black Thread, Reweave, and Unravelling the Shroud by Pam Moon [21 Jan 2015]
Here is a brief excerpt from the article: "I was delighted to discover from Emanuela Marinelli and Will Meacham that the large black thread was probably stitched in 1694 by Bl Sebastian Valfrè. The invisible reweave hypothesis of Joe Marino and Sue Benford supported by Donna Campbell may refer to two or three different episodes of stitch repair and Bl Sebastian’s repair was one episode."
Blood on the Shroud of Turin: An Immunological Review by Kelly P. Kearse [August 2012]
Relatively new in the Shroud world, Kelly Kearse is a blood expert who has taken a very strong interest in the Shroud and has studied and evaluated the existing blood evidence very carefully. He has written articles on the subject on the online ShroudScience Group and the blogs. This excellent article is a comprehensive review of his recent blood studies.
Blood stains of the Turin Shroud 2015: beyond personal hopes and limitations of techniques by Giovanni Di Minno, Rosanna Scala, Itala Ventre, Giovanni de Gaetano. Internal and Emergency Medicine, June 2016, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 507-516. First online: 21 March 2016. Abstract, Preview and References available free. Article behind pay wall. Here is an excerpt from the abstract:
"In the early ‘80s, evidence was provided that, rather than a dye (red okra), hemoglobin was indeed responsible for the alleged blood stains of the Turin Shroud. Such stains were shown to belong to an MNS positive individual of the AB group, and the halos surrounding the blood stains were compatible with serum containing trace amounts of bilirubin, albumin and immunoglobulins. However, being only based on indirect and circumstantial evidence, most of these data were challenged."
Body Image Formation Hypothesis based on Corona Discharge by Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference)
This paper details Giulio's controversial theory that the Shroud's image was formed via coronal discharge. Additionally, here is a link to the presentation slides Giulio showed at the conference: http://www.dim.unipd.it/fanti/PDFpresCORONA.pdf
Can a Corona Discharge Explain the Body Image of the Turin Shroud? by G. Fanti
This article is from the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, March/April 2010, Volume 54, Issue 2, pp. 020508-(11) (Abstract Only)
Can a latent image explain the characteristics of the Shroud body image? by G. Fazio & G. Mandaglio
(2011), Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, DOI:10.1080/10420150.2011.595413 (Abstract Only without Subscription) [Jan 2012]
Cathar Crucifix, The: New Evidence of the Shroud's Missing History by Jack Markwardt (.pdf format) [50k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress)
Jack continues in his ongoing efforts to fill in the missing years of the Shroud's early history. Regular website viewers will know Jack from his earlier papers on this site.
C-14 Debate from the Shroud Newsgroup: alt.turin-shroud - Roger Sparks and William Meacham
This article is compiled from a series of postings that appeared on the Shroud Newsgroup, alt.turin-shroud. In it, Rodger Sparks, a carbon dating expert from New Zealand, and William Meacham, archaeologist and Shroud researcher from Hong Kong, debated some of the theories that have been proposed regarding possible inaccuracies in the 1988 test results. My thanks to them both for their kind permission in allowing me to reprint their comments here on the website.
Chemistry of Autocatalytic Processes in the Context of the Shroud of Turin, The by Ray N. Rogers (.pdf format) [37k] [October 2002]
This article by Ray Rogers, retired pyrolysis chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratories and original member of the STURP team, is somewhat technical but very important and well worth reading. It discusses the damage to the cloth resulting from the fire of 1532 and concludes that it posed no immediate or ongoing threat to the Shroud. Reportedly, the fear of additional damage to the Shroud by autocatalysis in existing burn and scorch areas prompted the July 2002 restoration.
Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin by Joseph G. Marino and Edwin J. Prior (.pdf format) [145k] [November 2008]
This excellent summary article is co-authored by noted Shroud scholar Joseph Marino and retired NASA scientist Edwin Prior. It provides compelling, detailed evidence supporting the theory that the 1988 c-14 dating of the Turin Shroud used an anomalous sample not representative of the main Shroud cloth.
EDITOR’S NOTE: Since this article was first written, the authors found considerable additional information to further document the evidence supporting this theory and have compiled it into an Addendum to their original article. You can find the addendum at this link:
"ADDENDUM to Chronological History of the Evidence for the Anomalous Nature of the C-14 Sample Area of the Shroud of Turin." (.pdf format) [74k] [January 2009] <
‘A Clean Cloth’ - What Greek Word Usage Tells Us About the Death and Burial of Jesus by Diana Fulbright (.pdf format) [584k] [September 2005]
This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005. (Editor's Note: This link is to a reprint of the article from the BSTS Newsletter No. 62)
Cold Acid Postmortem Blood Most Probably Formed Pinkish-Red Heme-Madder Lake on Madder-Dyed Shroud of Turin by Adrie A. M. van der Hoeven - Open Journal of Applied Sciences - Vol. 5, No. 11, November 2015. This is another in-depth, 42 page paper by Adrie and is published in an open-access journal so you can download it free. Here is the abstract:
The Turin Shroud was extensively scientifically investigated in 1978. In its pinkish red bloodstains, normal features of human blood were found, but also seemingly anomalous ones. In the present study, hitherto unnoticed details of the data are presented, Shroud data and more modern reference data are compared, and the results of a few experiments with linen, madder dye and blood are shown. It turns out that the Shroud’s ‘anomalous’ data are strong consistent evidence that its bloodstains contain acid heme-madder lake, of which the heme derived from cold acid postmortem blood and the madder had been applied to the Shroud at manufacture. It implies that the bloodstains were formed on the Shroud before the still not reproduced body-image was. Several other ‘red-color’ hypotheses for the Shroud’s bloodstains are discussed and dismissed.
Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) contamination, mould damage, biocides and the carbon-14 dating of the Shroud of Turin by Pamela Moon [May 2013]
(Excerpt from Introduction): It is the argument of this paper that the Shroud of Turin was contaminated by water which could be, and most probably was, groundwater, floodwater or bacterially compromised holy water. Coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) commonly found in contaminated water sources and the consequences of the introduction of the dissolved matter, could affect the carbon-14 dating.
Colouring fabrics with Excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin by P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra and A. Santoni
This article is from the Proceedings of SPIE, the International Society for Optical Engineering, 2008 (No issue # available) (Abstract Only) and its availability online just came to my attention in 2010.
Comments About the Recent Experiment of Professor Luigi Garlaschelli by Thibault Heimburger, M.D. (.pdf format) [516k] (Includes 12 color photomicrographs and illustrations) [November 2009]
On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. For this article, Thibault consulted directly with Professor Garlaschelli and provides a detailed overview of his techniques, along with a point by point comparison between Garlaschelli's results and the image on the Shroud.
Comments On Shroud Research by Donald Lynn (.pdf format) [7k] (From The Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology)
Don's presentation shared his thoughts on Shroud research and the future.
Comments on the analysis interpretation by Rogers and Latendresse regarding samples coming from the Shroud of Turin by Marco Bella, Luigi Garlaschelli, Roberto Samperia. Thermochimica Acta, Volume 632, 20 May 2016, Pages 52–55. Abstract and Highlights available free. Article behind pay wall. Here is the abstract:
"The presence of a “invisible mending” has been proposed as an explanation for medieval radiocarbon dating measurements made on the Shroud of Turin. Here we show that the chemical analysis which was to support this theory is not consistent, and no scientific data confirm these speculations. Specifically, the samples of the Shroud image fibers underwent a different cleaning procedure with regards to those allegedly belonging to the medieval mending. There is no reliable indication of the supposedly diagnostic compounds (e.g. gum Arabic, pentoses). The only detectable difference between the samples is the presence of a compound with an aliphatic chain which cannot be identified more in detail, e.g. as sebum."
Comments on the mass spectrometry analysis of a sample of the Shroud of Turin by Bella et al. by Mario Latendresse - Science Direct, Thermochimica Acta Volume 624, 20 January 2016, Pages 55-58. Mario has written an interesting rebuttal to the editorial, but check and download it quickly. It will go behind a pay wall after February 12, 2016. Here is a key excerpt from the abstract:
"...The main conclusion of Bella et al. was 'No diagnostic peak in the pyrolysis mass spectra indicates a significant difference in the two samples, besides hydrocarbon-derived contamination. Therefore, none of the presented data supports the conclusion by Rogers.' We show that the technical analysis of Bella et al. of the mass spectra is incorrect and that their main conclusion is unconfirmed, in particular that a 'contaminant' would be present on the second sample analyzed."
The above is a rebuttal to the following editorial that was published in Thermochimica Acta 10 October 2015:There is no mass spectrometry evidence that the C14 sample from the Shroud of Turin comes from a “medieval invisible mending” by Marco Bella, Luigi Garlaschelli, Roberto Samperia - Science Direct, Thermochimica Acta Volume 617, 10 October 2015, Pages 169–171 - Abstract only. [1 November 2015] Here is the abstract:
This is an editorial regarding a paper published on Thermochimica Acta (R.N. Rogers, Thermochimca Acta, 425 (2005) 189–194). A close-up analysis of the pyrolysis-mass spectra reported in the original paper reveals that the differences found between the samples coming from different parts of the Shroud are just due to the presence of a contaminant with a long aliphatic chain. Except for the presence of the contaminant, the two pyrolysis-mass spectra look alike rather than different. Therefore, the pseudoscientific theory stating that the C14 sample might come from a “medieval invisible mending” remains unsupported by evidences.
Comments on 'The Resurrection of the Shroud' by Mark Antonacci by Ray Rogers (.pdf format) [119k] (English)
This article by Ray Rogers, one of the original members of the Shroud of Turin Research Project (STURP) and a retired chemist from Los Alamos National Laboratories, reviews the book titled, "The Resurrection of the Shroud" by St. Louis attorney, Mark Antonacci.
Click here to read Mark Antonacci's Reply To Ray Rogers' Review of His Book
Comparison among the Shroud body image formation mechanisms by the linen fibrils distributions by G. Fazio, V. De Leo, F. Curciarello and G. Mandaglio
This article was published in The Journal of The Textile Institute, June 2014.
Comparitive Study of the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin by G. Heras and D. Villalain (.pdf format) [69k] (English)
Estudio comparativo entre al Sudario de Oviedo y la Sindone de Turin by G. Heras and D. Villalain (.pdf format) [78k] (Spanish)
These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Spanish versions.
Computerized Anthropometric Analysis of the Man of the Turin Shroud by Prof. ssa Emanuela Marinelli- Co-authored with Alessandro Cagnazzo and Prof. Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [222k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
This is an important paper that includes anthropometric measurements of the body image on the Shroud and compares the results to known body types.
Concept of Negativity Through the Ages, The vs. The Negative Image on the Shroud by Isabel Piczek
This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It gives Isabel Piczek's unique perspective on this important aspect of Shroud research and is profusely illustrated, as all Isabel's presentations are. Isabel is a noted monumental artist and physicist and a well respected Shroud researcher. It may take a few minutes to fully download the article with its many illustrations, but it is well worth the wait.
Concerning the Side Strip on the Shroud of Turin by Alan D. Adler and Alan & Mary Whanger
This paper concludes that the samples used to carbon date the Shroud in 1988 may have been taken from a part of the cloth that was rewoven in medieval times. This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It includes three highly magnified x-rays made during the 1978 examination to illustrate its hypothesis. Dr. Adler is an internationally known and well respected Shroud researcher and worked with the late Dr. John Heller in 1979 to complete the chemical analysis that proved the bloodstains on the Shroud were actually blood. He is currently an advisor to the Archbishop of Turin regarding future conservation efforts of the cloth. Alan and Mary Whanger are noted Shroud researchers that have done extensive studies regarding secondary images on the Shroud and were participants in the recently announced discovery of flower images on the cloth.
Conservation of the Shroud of Turin by Alan D. Adler and Larry A. Schwalbe
A realistic evaluation of the conservation problems that must be confronted and resolved in order to preserve the Shroud of Turin and its unique image. Alan Adler, Professor of Chemistry at Western Connecticut State University, is a well known and respected Shroud researcher who worked with the late John Heller in evaluating the blood stains on the Shroud. Both he, and Larry Schwalbe of Los Alamos Laboratories, were original team members of STURP. You will find references to more of their published Shroud papers on the "1978 Scientific Examination" page of this website, in the Bibliography of STURP's Published Papers. This article is reprinted courtesy of Dorothy Crispino, Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first refereed scientific journal dedicated exclusively to Shroud of Turin research.
Conservation of the Shroud of Turin: Optical Studies, The by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, Antonino Santoni, Enrico Nichelatti - ENEA Report 2012. [21 January 2013]
Abstract: The ancient linen cloth of the Shroud of Turin is one of the archaeological objects most studied in history, mainly because of the unexplained nature of its image. We have recently irradiated linen fabrics by excimer laser pulses obtaining a Shroud-like coloration, and have recognized photo-chemical processes that may have played a role in the formation of the image embedded into the Shroud. Our results suggest some actions aimed at a long-term conservation of the Shroud and its image.
Consideration to the Uniformity and Effects of the Fabric in the Shroud of Turin by Donna Campbell, M.A., Thomas Ferguson Irish Linen - published by Pam Moon on her Shroud of Turin Exhibition website in September 2014 [5 October 2014]
Pam Moon contacted Thomas Ferguson Irish Linen, a world renowned textile firm (also once employed by Benford and Marino*), and asked them to evaluate the Shroud textile using photographs of the Oxford radiocarbon samples. In her comments regarding mending Campbell concludes, "...there are signs in the Shroud sample that direct the notion of mending or reweaving of the actual woven fabric."
Cotton In Raes/Radiocarbon Threads: The Example of Raes #7 by Thibault Heimburger (.pdf format) [234k], [601k], [417k] [May 2009]
This latest article from Thibault, dedicated to the memory of Sue Benford, is based on his careful analysis of the Raes #7 sample which was provided to him at 2008's Ohio Shroud Conference. His results add further confirmation to the observations and conclusions made by Benford & Marino, Ray Rogers, John Brown, Robert Villarreal and others. As it includes many color photomicrographs, it is broken into three parts to keep the individual files sizes (and consequently, download times) to a minimum. You will find a link at the end of each part of the article that allows you to continue to the next part.
Could the Shroud of Turin be an effect of post-mortem changes? by Lucia Tattoli, Michael Tsokos, Claas Buschmann
This paper was published in the February 2014 issue of Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology and bases its theories on an actual forensic case in which a dead body left an imprint on the floor. The authors propose this might be a parallel to the image on the Shroud of Turin. The first two pages of the article can be previewed at the above link but the complete text is behind a pay wall.
A Critical Summary of Observations, Data and Hypotheses - Version 3.0 by Bob Siefker, Keith Propp, Dave Fornof, Ares Koumis, Rebecca Jackson and John Jackson - Updated October 22, 2015 [1 November 2015]
This is the latest version of the Critical Summary paper that is produced and updated by the researchers at the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado under the guidance of Dr. John Jackson, co-founder of the STURP team. Note that it replaces the previous version.
Crucifixion of Jesus, The: review of hypothesized mechanisms of death and implications of shock and trauma-induced coagulopathy by Joseph W. Bergeron, M.D. [July 2011]
This article was was accepted for publication in the Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine in July 2011. Joe has also created a website, Cause of Jesus' Death, to go with the article
Dating and Formation of the Shroud by Peter Carr (.pdf format) [73k]
The author logically weighs and carefully evaluates the evidence for the Shroud's authenticity from his perspective as a scientist who spent many years in charge of technical laboratories carrying out research and development. This is the first time it has appeared in print.
The Dating of the Shroud of Turin from Coins of Pontius Pilate by Francis L. Filas, S.J. - 2nd Edition, Updated to June 1982. [1 November 2015]
Although not widely accepted, this theory is nonetheless a part of Shroud research and has been referenced by a number of Shroud authors, so we thought it important to archive it on Shroud.com.
Debunking The Shroud: Made by Human Hands by Gary Vikan
This article appeared in the November/December 1998 issue of Biblical Archaeology Review and includes a sidebar titled, The Shroud Painting Explained by Walter C. McCrone. The controversial article spawned a wide gamut of responses from the magazine's readers, which were printed in their Letters to the Editor column in a later issue. These are included following the article. A number of other responses were submitted to BAR that were not published, probably due to their length. These included an in-depth collaborative response titled, Deconstructing the "Debunking" of the Shroud, authored by Prof. Dan Scavone, Prof. Karlheinz Dietz, John Markwardt, Mario Latendresse, Rev. Albert Dreisbach, Mark Guscin, Joseph Marino, Emanuela Marinelli and Gino Zaninotto and a separate response titled, Comments on the Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud by Dr. Stephen Mattingly. These are published here for the first time. Just added is a previously unpublished personal letter from noted Shroud researcher, Dr. Alan Whanger to Mr. Hershel Shanks, Editor of BAR, responding to the Vikan article.
Deep Ultraviolet Radiation Simulates the Turin Shroud Image by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, Antonino Santoni and Giulio Fanti
This article appeared in the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, [July/August 2010] Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040302-(6) (Abstract Only)
Detailed Critical Review of the Chemical Studies on the Turin Shroud, A: Facts and Interpretations by Thibault Heimburger, M.D. (.pdf format) [569k] [January 2008]
This paper offers a detailed synthesis of all the data gathered and the scientific testing performed by John Heller and Alan Adler compared side by side with the analysis performed by Walter McCrone on tape samples taken from the Shroud of Turin in 1978 by the STURP team. It directly addresses the two major questions posed by the researchers: 1) Is the Shroud of Turin a painting? and 2) Is the blood really blood? Thibault's direct comparison includes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the techniques and procedures used for the analysis by all the researchers, their validity for the type of samples being tested, the quality (and credibility) of their respective conclusions and much more. Thibault gets technical, but does so in the simplest and most direct terms. This paper will help the reader fully understand the significance of Heller and Adler's work, recognize the flaws in McCrone's techniques and conclusions and gain a clear, credible, scientific answer to both questions.
Did Geoffroy I de Charny Obtain the Present Turin Shroud on the Smyrna Campaign of 1346 by Prof. Daniel Scavone (.pdf format) [72k] 
In this paper, Dan revisits the theories about the first documented owner of the Shroud, Geoffroy 1 de Charny, and where he might have acquired the relic. In several areas, he disagrees with other Shroud historians on certain aspects of the de Charny theories and makes a valid case for his conclusions.
The Disappearance of Jesus' Body, Part 2: Physical Considerations by Robert A. Rucker - Academia.edu - June 28, 2016. [19 September 2016]
This is an analysis of the physical/scientific pros and cons of seven different proposed options for how the body could have disappeared from within the Shroud. This is a more extensive analysis than anything that I have seen before. Of particular interest is a cute fictional story of Mr. Dotman in Lineland starting on page 13. (Comments by the author).
Discrepancies in the radiocarbon dating area of the Turin shroud by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino
This article originally appeared in the journal Chemistry Today, vol 26 n 4, July-August 2008 but just became available in its entirety on the internet in 2010. (Full Paper Available)
DNA on the Shroud of Turin: Distinguishing endogenous versus exogenous DNA by Kelly P. Kearse [21 January 2013]
Here is the full Abstract for this paper: "In the late 1990s it was reported that human DNA existed on the Shroud of Turin, and although in a generally degraded state, certain regions were sufficiently intact to clone and sequence three genes from bloodstained fibers: human betaglobin, amelogenin X and amelogenin Y. An unknown variable in such studies is the extent of contamination by exogenous DNA, transferred to the Shroud by persons or objects that have come in contact with cloth. Indeed, the abovementioned genes are not exclusive to blood cells, but are also found within other cell types, including skin cells. Here, a simple experimental approach is described for distinguishing endogenous versus exogenous DNA, which may help establish that DNA in the blood areas of the Shroud of Turin originated from white blood cells (lymphocytes) present on the cloth."
DNA Analysis and the Shroud of Turin: Development of a Shroud CODIS by Kelly P. Kearse [21 January 2014] - Linceul de Turin et génétique: établir le profil ADN du Linceul - En français (French translation by Renaud Joseph) [23 November 2016]
This is Kelly's fourth paper on our site and once again, he has taken a very technical subject and made it interesting and understandable for everyone. In this article he clearly explains how the latest refinements in DNA analyses could be applied to the Shroud.
Doubts Concerning the Coins Over the Eyes by Antonio Lombatti
This article originally appeared in the "Letters To The Editor" section of the June/July 1997 issue (#45) of the British Society for the Turin Shroud (BSTS) Newsletter and is available via the "British Society for the Turin Shroud" page of this website. It sparked a lively e-mail debate amongst Shroud researchers, which, through the courtesy of all the participants, is reprinted following the article.
Do we really need new medical information about the Turin Shroud? by M. Bevilacqua, G. Fanti, M. D’Arienzo and R. De Caro
In Press - Injury, 2013, published by Elsevier [Dec 2013]
Duplicità del volto Sindonico by Giovanni Imbalzano
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium. The link is to the author's website where you will find the Italian text of this and his other Shroud-related works.
An early first-century earthquake in the Dead Sea by Jefferson B. Williams, et al.
This article was published in 2011 in International Geology Review 54(10): 1219-1228. The article examines a report in the 27th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament that an earthquake was felt in Jerusalem on the day of the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth.[7 June 2014]
Earthquake Theory Comments by Jeff Williams by Jefferson B. Williams
Comments to www.shroud.com dated February 13, 2014 from the author, a geologist who has done extensive research in the Dead Sea (including taking and analyzing countless core samples of the sea bottom sediments). [7 June 2014]
Effects of Contextual Information on Seeing Pareidolic Religious Inscriptions on an Artifact: Implications for the Shroud of Turin by Mercedes Sheen and Timothy R. Jordan - Perception, September 30, 2015. [1 November 2015] Here is an excerpt from the abstract:
"Several reports suggest that images of the Shroud of Turin contain faint religious inscriptions that support the view that the Shroud has special religious significance. Against this background, we investigated effects of contextual information on detecting religious inscriptions using an image of plain modern linen with no religious provenance and containing no writing. The image was viewed in three contexts: In the Neutral Context, participants were told that the image was of a simple piece of linen; in the Religious Context, participants were told that the image was of an important religious artifact; and in the Religious ContextþOptions condition, participants were also given plausible word options..."
Electronic Archiving and Distribution: The Value of the Internet and CD-ROM Technology by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf format) [22k] (From The 1998 Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology) - Almacenamiento y Distribución Electrónica: El Valor de Internet y de la Tecnología en CD-ROM (En Español)
This presentation started with an overview of the Shroud of Turin Website for those who had never seen it. Using a computer video projector (courtesy of Russell Breault), I was able to project the image directly from my laptop computer to a large screen. I demonstrated many of the website's features, including the use of the "Shroud Library" page to navigate the website. I was also very proud to demonstrate, for the first time ever in public, "The Virtual VP-8" Segment from the Shroud of Turin CD-ROM. This is the most dynamic and interactive portion of the disc, and allows each viewer the opportunity to manipulate the 3-D characteristics of the Shroud image. This moment was made even more exceptional for me when I discovered that Peter Schumacher, an expert on the VP-8 Image Analyzer, was in the room!
Empirical evidence that the blood on the Shroud of Turin is of human origin: Is the current data sufficient? by Kelly P. Kearse [21 January 2013]
Here is an excerpt from the Abstract: "Previous studies have established that the blood areas on the Shroud of Turin consist of real blood and are not composed of artistic pigments. It is commonly reported that the blood is of human origin, but just how substantial is the evidence to support this conclusion? Here, the empirical evidence for the human origin of the Turin Shroud bloodstains is evaluated.... The potential usefulness of additional testing methods, many developed since the original studies were performed approximately thirty years ago, is also discussed."
Evidence for the Shroud in Constantinople prior to 1204 by Daniel C. Scavone (.pdf format) [32k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
This presentation included 22 slides which are not currently included with the article. However, since we plan to include these illustrations in the future, the references to them remain in the text.
Evidence for the Skewing of the C-14 Dating of the Shroud of Turin Due to Repairs by Joseph G. Marino and M. Sue Benford (.pdf format) [235k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress) (Includes 8 illustrations)
This article presents carefully documented evidence that the section of the Shroud of Turin from which the 1988 C-14 samples were removed, was in fact, a portion of the cloth that was rewoven and repaired in medieval times. If proven true, this evidence would provide the simplest explanation for the medieval age of the cloth arrived at by the three C-14 laboratories that performed the tests.
Evidence Is Not Proof: A Response to Prof. Timothy Jull by Mark Oxley [21 January 2011]
This article was written in response to a paper titled Investigating a Dated Piece of the Shroud of Turin by the University of Arizona's Rachel Freer-Waters and Prof. Timothy Jull that was published in the December 2010 issue of their peer reviewed journal, Radiocarbon. In part it concluded: "In contrast to other reports on less-documented material, we find no evidence to contradict the idea that the sample studied was taken from the main part of the shroud, as reported by Damon et al. (1989). We also find no evidence for either coatings or dyes, and only minor contaminants."
Mark Oxley's article is a carefully written, clear, concise and thoughtful response to the paper.
Evidence that the Shroud was not Completely Flat during the Image Formation by Mario Latendresse [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference)
Above is a link to the article on Mario's website. The following is a link to Mario's Presentation Slides: http://www.sindonology.org/papers/latendresse2005aSlides.pdf
Evidences for Testing Hypotheses About the Body Image Formation of the Turin Shroud by Giulio Fanti et al (.pdf format) [113k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (24 Co-authors)
This paper, representing the combined efforts of 24 researchers who participate regularly in an online Shroud Science forum, was originally scheduled to be presented at the Dallas Conference, but the authors were notified at the last moment that its acceptance had been revoked because it was deemed to be "too controversial.” Ultimately, it was presented on Saturday evening of the conference by Giulio Fanti to a large group in Dan Porter's Hospitality Suite. However, since the paper was accepted and listed in the Conference Program, I am including it here.
Excursuses to the article "The Shroud of Turin: A Critical Assessment" by Atle Ottesen Søvik - Teologisk tidsskrift (Journal of Theology), no 3, 2013. [1 November 2015]
In this paper the author collected four excursuses for which there was not space in the main article, “The Shroud of Turin: A Critical Assessment,” which we featured in our June 7, 2014 update. [FYI - Excursuses: plural noun - detailed discussions of particular points in a book (or article), usually in an appendix. A digression in a written text]. Our thanks to Joe Marino for letting us know about this follow up article. You can follow Atle and read some of his other papers (many in English) at this link: Atle Ottesen Søvik on Academia.edu.
Exploration of the Face of the Turin Shroud. Linen Fibres Studied by SEM Analysis. by Gerard Lucotte, International Journal of the Latest Research in Science and Technology, 4, 78-83. September-October 2015. [23 November 2016] Here is the Abstract:
"We have studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) the linen fibers loaded on the surface of a small sticky tape triangle corresponding to the Face area of the Turin Shroud (TS). Five linen fibers (FL1-5) were found. They are linen fiber portions (maximal length : 50 ƒÝ), broken at the basis and thinned at the extremities, and wrenched from flax threads constituting the TS. Some of them present evidence of white painting, by lime or by mineral deposit of calcite particles."
Exploration of the Face of the Turin Shroud. Pollens Studied by SEM Analysis by Gérard Lucotte - Archeological Discovery, Vol.3 No.4, October 2015. [1 November 2015] Here is an excerpt from the abstract:
"We studied by SEM-EDX analysis the pollens on the Face of the Turin Shroud. A total of ten pollen grains were found; they were photographed, characterised and analysed. Three of them (pollens p6, p7 and p10) belong to Ceratonia siliqua, the carob tree; one of them (pollen p1) belongs to Balanites aegyptiaca (the palm tree of the desert), and another one (pollen p9) belongs to Cercis siliquastrum (the Judean tree). These three plants have their geographical distributions in the Near-East; that is indicative of a Palestinian origin of the Turin Shroud..."
A Face in the Shroud by Robin Lynn Waxenberg - Connecticut College, 1981-1982 Student Newspapers, October 16, 1981, College Voice Vol. 5 No. 5 [19 Sept 2016]
This article appeared in the College Voice, a weekly student newspaper, just days after the STURP team's final meeting at Connecticut College on October 10-11, 1981. Our thanks to our friend Ken Yakkel, who was researching STURP when he came across the article online and was kind enough to share it with us. Although the Shroud is the headline story on page one, you will have to do some scrolling to get to the rest of the article since the entire issue is included. A great moment in Shroud history!
Faith and science dialogue in the Shroud of Turin (English language) - Diálogo Entre Fe y Ciencia en la Síndone de Turín (En Español) by Josep Fernandez-Capo [16 August 2015]
This paper first appeared in Scientia et Fides, Vol 3, No 1 (2015).
Fathers of American Sindonology, The by Dorothy Crispino
In this fascinating article, Dorothy relates the story of the men who formed the Holy Shroud Guild, the first group to promote Shroud research in the United States. It introduces the men whose efforts ultimately helped STURP obtain permission to perform the 1978 scientific examination of the Shroud. Dorothy was the Publisher and Editor of Shroud Spectrum International, the first peer reviewed journal in the United States dedicated exclusively to the study of the Shroud (Sindonology). This presentation was originally delivered at the 1996 Esopus Conference.
Feasibility Analysis of Studies on Linen from the Shroud of Turin Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, A by Giulio Fanti & Ulf Winkler (.pdf format) [54k] (English)
Analisi di fattibilità di indagini sul lino della Sindone di Torino mediante risonanza magnetica nucleare (.pdf format) [57k] (Italian)
These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Italian versions.
Feasibility Study for Neutron Beam Investigation of the Turin Shroud (Studio di fattibilità per l'investigazione della Sindone di Torino mediante tecniche neutroniche) by Massimo Rogante and László Rosta [19 Sept 2016]
International Journal of New Technology and Research, ISSN:2454-4116, Volume 2, Issue 3, (2016), pp. 86-95. English with a preface in Italian language.
Finding the Shroud in the 21st Century by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino
This is the earliest paper by Benford and Marino (December 2001) proposing their theory of a rewoven and anomalous sample site used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud
Fire and the Portrait, The by Jack Markwardt - Czech Translation by professional translator Daniela Milton
This paper proposes to resolve, and to reconcile, two of the Shroud's most tantalizing mysteries: When and how did it incur the fire damage now generally referred to as the "poker holes" and when and why was it converted into the portrait known as the Image of Edessa. This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium.
Editor's Note: See the article on this website titled The Red Stains on the Lier and Other Shroud Copies by Remi Van Haelst. It includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes discussed in this paper, as well as the transmitted light image of the Shroud mentioned in the footnotes.
The First Selfie: Does the Shroud of Turin provide Scientific evidence of the Resurrection? by John Klotz. Published March 24, 2016 on John's blog: Living Free. This article includes footnotes and references not included in the blog version. Here is a brief excerpt from the article:
"Given the fact that the first photograph is generally credited to Joseph Nicephore Niepce ("Niepce") in 1826, it would be a stretch to credit the Shroud of Turin as the "first photograph." Yet that is precisely what Professor Gail Buckland has done. If that is an acceptable tag for the Shroud, then tagging the Shroud as the "first selfie" may also be appropriate."
First Shroud Photo, The by Remi Van Haelst
The author has compiled a large number of press articles about Secondo Pia and his correspondence with Paul Vignon, Arthur Loth, Baron Manno and several others. In addition to some very interesting insights into Pia's work and the criticisms he endured, it also provides some of his technical photographic data and a chart of Shroud measurements made at various times between 1503 and 1898.
Five Reasons Why Some Christians Are Shroud Skeptics by Barrie Schwortz - Reprinted from the Spring 2016 issue, pages 67-76 of The City, a publication of Houston Baptist University. Here is a brief excerpt from the article:
"Over the years I have spoken to hundreds of Christian groups of nearly every denomination and have probably heard every reason why people either love or hate the Shroud... When I was asked to write this article for The City I realized this was a perfect opportunity to expand on the information I had been presenting at my lectures and dispel in detail some of the misconceptions about the Shroud that many Christians seem to have. Before you make up your mind, I believe you should know the facts."
Floral Images and Pollen Grains on the Shroud of Turin: An Interview with Dr. Alan Whanger and Dr. Avinoam Danin by John C. Iannone (.pdf format) [15k]
In this very recent article, John spent considerable time interviewing the researchers and then additional time allowing them to review his article for accuracy. This article provides excellent insight into some of the most important, current research being done on the Shroud.
Floristic Indicators for the Origin of the Shroud of Turin by Avinoam Danin and Uri Baruch (.pdf format) [25k] (Full Paper)
From the 1998 Turin Symposioum.
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) by Raymond N. Rogers [July 2004] (Includes 9 color & b&w illustrations) - Questions Fréquemment Posées (FAQ) (en français) (French translation Added 31 August 2013)
Ray accumulated the questions he had been asked (and has answered) most often over the years and compiled them into this paper. In it, you will find that Ray provides clear, detailed answers to nineteen of the most important questions about the Shroud of Turin and supports each answer with empirical scientific data.
Further Studies on the Scorches and the Watermarks by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [437k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (40 photographs and illustrations)
As always, Aldo Guerreschi's thoughtful, thorough and empirical approach to Shroud research is evidenced in this, his latest contribution to our knowledge of the Shroud. In this newest paper, perhaps the best presented at the 2005 Dallas conference, Aldo recreates the fire of 1532 and provides a highly credible explanation for the infamous burn holes and scorches on the Shroud. Long thought to be caused by molten silver dripping onto the cloth from the superheated silver-covered reliquary, this theory was not borne out by the data gathered in 1978 by STURP, as their spectral analysis found no silver residue in any of the burned or scorched areas. Aldo's most recent work provides what may be the best answer to this problem.
Geography of the Shroud, The by Emanuela Marinelli (.pdf format) [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference)
In this paper, Emanuela provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of Shroud studies around the world and includes links to dozens of Shroud related websites.
Ghiberti's pronouncement on my analyses by Raymond N. Rogers [January 23, 2005]
Rogers' response to criticism of his work by Msgr. Giuseppe Ghiberti.
Hematite, Biotite and Cinnabar on the Face of the Turin Shroud: Microscopy and SEM-EDX Analysis by Lucotte, G., Derouin, T. and Thomasset, T. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 6, 601-625. 16 September 2016 [19 September 2016] Here is the abstract:
The Turin Shroud, recently accessible for hands-on scientific research, is now extensively investigated. Its pinkish red blood stains that seem anomalous ones are studied by modern techniques (notably by resolute optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray). Exploration by these techniques of a blood stain located on the face permits us to discover some red-colour particles (hematite, biotite and cinnabar) of exogenous material in this stain. We finally characterize these red-colour particles and try to explain their presences in the blood stain. Globally, all these red-colour particles cannot explain all of the reddish appearance of the area under study.
Historical Support of a 16th Century Restoration in the Shroud C-14 Sample Area by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [92k] [August 2002] (Includes 4 illustrations)
One of the main criticisms leveled at Marino and Benford's original proposal was the credibility of their claim that such an "invisible" reweaving method even existed, let alone was good enough to avoid detection by the experts who have studied the Shroud in the last century. Their second paper directly addresses this issue and documents the art of invisible reweaving in great detail.
A History of the Centro Mexicano de Sindonologia (CMS) by Dr. Julio Lopez, or en español: Historia del Centro Mexicano de Sindonología (CMS) [December 14, 2013] (Includes 22 color illustrations)
In honor of the 30th anniversary of the CMS, Dr. Julio Lopez has written an exclusive article for us that charts the history and evolution of the organization in text and photographs and includes a special tribute to Sindonologists past and present. A special thanks to Julio's son, Julio López Rodriguez, for providing us with the English translation of his father's article.
History of Shroud.com, The by Barrie M. Schwortz [January 21, 2012] (En Español)
The story of how it all began.
How was the Turin Shroud Man Crucified? - by M. Bevilacqua, G. Fanti, M. D’Arienzo, A. Porzionato, V. Macchi, and R. De Caro - Injury, Volume 45, Supplement 6, December 2014, Pages S142–S148. This link is via Science Direct. [Added 21 Jan 2015]
Here is a brief excerpt from the Abstract: As the literature is not exhaustive with reference to the way the Turin Shroud (TS) Man was crucified, and it is not easy to draw significant information from only a “photograph” of a man on a linen sheet, this study tries to add some detail on this issue based on both image processing of high resolution photos of the TS and on experimental tests on arms and legs of human cadavers.
Ideas for Research on the Shroud of Turin by Robert A. Rucker, November 11, 2016. Academia.edu - Here is an excerpt from the Abstract:
"This paper lists ideas for research that would be helpful to solve the main mysteries related to the Shroud of Turin. This suggested research includes questions to be considered and ideas for calculations and experiments to be done..."
Image Formation and the Shroud of Turin by Dr. Emily A. Craig and Dr. Randall R. Bresee (.pdf format) [315k]
This article first appeared in the peer-reviewed Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, Volume 38, No. 1, p.59-67. (1994). It presents a method by which the carbon-dust drawing technique can be modified to produce an image that the authors claim has the same physical characteristics as the image on the Shroud of Turin. The authors are quick to point out that this method and theory do not prove that someone DID produce the image on the Shroud of Turin. They do claim however, that with this method someone actually COULD have created such an image. The original article stresses the concept that a medieval artist could have created the image, but perhaps the most compelling new "twist" to this theory is found in the previously unpublished preface added here by Dr. Craig. Dr. Craig (Kentucky State Medical Examiner's Office) is an internationally recognized expert in forensic anthropology, which includes three-dimensional reconstruction of human faces on skulls as well as the analysis of skeletal trauma and decomposition. Dr. Craig also has over 25 years of experience as a professional medical illustrator with national and international awards for painting, sculpture, and photography. Dr. Bresee is a professor of textile science (University of Tennessee in Knoxville) and an internationally recognized expert in the field of forensic textile analysis. This article is posted with permission of IS&T: The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, sole copyright owners of IS&T's Journal of Photographic Science and Engineering for the term of January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2002, www.imaging.org
Image Formation Mechanism on the Shroud of Turin, The: A Solar Reflex Radiation Model (the Optical Aspect) by Serge N. Mouraviev (.pdf format) [66k]
La Formation de l’Image sur le Suaire de Turin: Projection optique (et Fixation photochimique) de l’Image réflexe renvoyée par le Corps exposé au Soleil (.pdf format) [65k]
Reprinted from the December 1997 issue of Applied Optics, this paper is available in both English and French and presents a unique hypothesis for image formation.
Imagen del Sudario de Turín procesada con la técnica FFT (En Español) - Turin Shroud image processed with the FFT technique (Google English translation) by Wilfredo Orozco - Blog of Espacial.org - September 28, 2015. [1 November 2015] - Ein Bild des Turiner Grabtuchs, analysiert mit der FFT-Technik (German language translation by Jonas Wintergalen) [19 September 2016]
The author, from Mendoza, Argentina, wrote his own code to apply a technique known as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to the Shroud image. His original photograph contained the prominent weave pattern of the cloth, which was successfully removed without deleting too much original data. If you are interested in learning more about FFT, the author has provided several other links to his articles (in Spanish) which you can translate using one of the online translation services. The articles include More images restored with the FFT technique and The power of mathematics and computing.
The Image on the Shroud of Turin is not the result of Earthquake Activity by John Iannone
Comments to www.shroud.com dated February 19, 2014. John presents his arguments from biblical and historical points of view. [7 June 2014]
Imaging Spectroscopy: A New Non-Destructive Method for Materials Analysis by Warren S. Grundfest, M.D. (.pdf format) [235k] (From The 2001 Dallas Meeting of American Sindonology)
Dr. Grundfest's presentation was one of the highlights of the meeting, detailing a new, non-destructive imaging technology that could provide complete spectral data and chemical analysis for every point on the Shroud and make a significant contribution to the conservation of the cloth.
Imprint, The by Peter Carr (.pdf format) [63k]
This paper provides a fascinating account of the Jospice Mattress imprint. Although this is not directly about the Shroud of Turin, it is still significant in that it is the only scientifically documented case in modern times of a dead body leaving an unexplainable imprint on a piece of cloth. Although the image is different than that on the Shroud, it still provides solid evidence that these type of unexplainable phenomena can occur. You should find it interesting, as the story of the image and the man that left it is well documented.
Information Content on the Shroud of Turin by Robert A. Rucker - Academia.edu - June 28, 2016. [19 Sept 2016]
This is a new and powerful argument for the necessity of radiation to be emitted from the body to carry the information content from the body to the cloth that is necessary to form the image on the Shroud.
Inscriptions on the Shroud, The by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [15k] (Reprinted from the BSTS Newsletter, No. 50, November 1999)
Mark Guscin is a member of both the BSTS and the Centro Español de Sindonologia (CES) and is the noted linguist and historian that wrote the definitive book on the Sudarium of Oviedo. This article challenges the theories of Marion and Courage, two French researchers who claim they have discovered new "inscriptions" on the Shroud.
Investigating a Dated Piece of the Shroud of Turin by Rachel Freer-Waters and Prof. Timothy Jull, Radiocarbon Vol 52, No.4, p. 1521-1527, December 2010
Abstract: We present a photomicrographic investigation of a sample of the Shroud of Turin, split from one used in the radiocarbon dating study of 1988 at Arizona. In contrast to other reports on less-documented material, we find no evidence to contradict the idea that the sample studied was taken from the main part of the shroud, as reported by Damon et al. (1989). We also find no evidence for either coatings or dyes, and only minor contaminants. (Note: This link is to a Subscriber Only page and only the abstract is accessible to the public. Also read the article titled Evidence Is Not Proof: A Response to Prof. Timothy Jull by Mark Oxley for a detailed response to this paper).
Invisible Mending of the Shroud in Theory and Reality, The by Mechthild Flury-Lemberg (.pdf format) [26k]
This paper was originally presented at the II International Congress on the Sudarium of Oviedo held in Oviedo, Spain, on April 13 - 15, 2007.
(Editor's Note: The illustrations for this paper can now be viewed at: www.shroud.com/mechthild.htm.)
Is The Shroud of Turin a Medieval Photograph? A Critical Examination of the Theory by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf format) [308k] (From the "Sindone 2000" Orvieto Worldwide Congress) (illustrated with 7 photographs)
In this paper the "proto-photography" theory of Nicholas Allen is examined in detail by a professional photographer. Allen proposes that the Shroud image is actually the product of a medieval photographer who used a camera obscura with a crystal lens to "photograph" a corpse onto linen cloth and Allen actually produced such an image using medieval raw materials. In this paper, Allen's results are evaluated in a side-by-side comparison with the image on the Shroud and some of the more sophisticated properties of the Shroud image are explained in detail. A preliminary version of this paper was presented at the May 2000 Imaging Conference in San Felice Circeo, Italy.
Is the Shroud of Turin a Painting? by Isabel Piczek - Alicia en el País de las Maravillas y la Sábana Santa de Turín (En Español)
An in depth study that examines the Shroud from an artist's perspective. Isabel Piczek is a world reknown monumental artist, theoretical physicist and active Shroud researcher since 1988. She has given numerous lectures around the globe, including three International Symposiums on the Shroud. This paper includes a summary of the material from her 1993 presentation at the Rome International Symposium. This paper includes 19 illustrations and will take a few minutes to load the first time you visit.
Joseph of Arimathea, the Holy Grail and the Turin Shroud (Abstract) by Professor Daniel Scavone
A brief overview of the fascinating premise that the burial shroud of Jesus was the original object underlying the legends of the Holy Grail. Professor Scavone is a noted historian, Shroud researcher and author whose detailed paper on this subject is soon to be published in a professional journal. This abstract was originally presented at the 1996 Esopus Conference. The full version of the paper is now available to SMU subscribers at the following link: http://www.smu.edu/arthuriana/access/ESubscribe/9-4/scavone.pdf.
Jospice Mattress Cover Image, The by Frederick Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D. (.pdf format) [342k] [November 2007] (11 Illustrations)
The Jospice mattress cover image is the detailed imprint of a dead man that was left on his mattress after he died. This previously unpublished paper documents the author's in-depth scientific study of this fascinating object and the image it bears.
The Key role of Biblical Archaeology in Exegesis: An interview with Professor Israel Finkelstein by Louis C. de Figueiredo. Academia.edu. Published online: Jan 2016. Here are the opening paragraphs:
"'If the historical faith of Israel is not founded in history, such a faith is erroneous, and therefore, our faith is also.' So wrote Father Roland de Vaux, the French Dominican archaeologist who excavated Qumran and was the first editor-in-chief of the Dead Sea Scrolls. These words were written in the last century, when there were not so many excavations in Israel as there are today. What we see today is that many, but not all, of these excavations demonstrate that text and spade can and do point in different directions. If archaeology, therefore, is allowed to tell its own story some parts of biblical history will require rethinking, particularly when it come to some well-known biblical figures and even events. This is the inevitable result when there is juxtaposing of the biblical record and archaeological data. It does not signify the end of faith. It can only mean that mature faith will be needed."
Language and Sensibility of Research Papers in Sindonology, The by Agnes Sam (.pdf format) [33k]
This article discusses the language and semantics used by sindonologists. The author suggests there has been a lack of consistency in the language sindonologists use to describe the 'man' on the Shroud, and consequently, a resulting lack of respect for the spiritual and religious aspects of the image. She recommends the adoption of a style sheet to encourage this consistency and presents her own suggestions to sindonologists for just such a style sheet. Agnes is open to discuss her ideas with interested viewers and encourages scholars to write her directly with their comments. A link to her e-mail address is included at the end of the article.
Lectures in Spain, Italy and Poland - April 2011 - A Personal Report by Barrie Schwortz
Schwortz spent much of April 2011 lecturing about the Shroud and representing STERA, Inc. at various schools and universities in Europe. This article describes the trip and shares his rather personal perspective on it.
Legal and Medical Aspects of the Trial and Death of Christ, The by Robert Bucklin, M.D., J.D.
A noted Shroud researcher, forensic pathologist and attorney, Dr. Bucklin applies the rules of evidence to the Gospel accounts of the trial of Jesus in this fascinating article. He compares the image on the Shroud of Turin to the written descriptions of the crucifixion and reaches some interesting conclusions. The article first appeared in the January 1970 edition of Medicine, Science and the Law.
The Lier Shroud and Lucas Cranach the Elder by Pam Moon
Recently published on Pam's Shroud of Turin Exhibition website [7 June 2014]. "This paper argues that the artist who created the Shroud of Turin copy known as the Lier (or Lierre) Shroud may be Lucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553)... It examines the signature on the Shroud and compares it with the different ways Cranach signed his name."
Life-size Reproduction of the Shroud of Turin and its Image by Luigi Garlaschelli
This paper was published in the Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, July/August 2010, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040301-(14) (Abstract Only).
Editor's Note: In October 2009, in response to a major media release by Professor Garlachelli claiming he had "reproduced" the Shroud image, I wrote and published an editorial titled Science By Press Release? In it I was critical of the fact that scientific claims are rarely if ever released to a major media outlet BEFORE being published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature, as was the case with Professor Garlaschelli's work. His original press release stated that the article would be published in such a journal "next week" Now, almost a year later, his work has finally been published in the above journal. You might also wish to read Comments About the Recent Experiment of Professor Luigi Garlaschelli by Thibault Heimburger. For this article, Thibault consulted directly with Professor Garlaschelli and provides a detailed overview of his techniques, along with a point by point comparison between Garlaschelli's results and the image on the Shroud (November 2009) (Full Paper Available).
A link between the Turin Shroud and the Knights Templar? Master Brother Widekind's seals show a Shroud-like Christ face by Louis C. de Figueiredo - Academia.edu, December 2015. Here is the opening paragraph:
In his book The Shroud: Fresh light on the 2000-year-old mystery, English historian Ian Wilson argues persuasively why the Turin Shroud was likely to have been in the possession of the Crusader Order of Knights Templar for some decades. In his words, “With an efficient support structure of clerks and servitors, the Order was able to act as guardians, traders and pawnbrokers for the flourishing trade in relics, genuine and false alike, that ensued after the Fourth Crusade. Thus, the means of acquiring the Image of Edessa/Shroud were in place. Also, the well-distributed and heavily guarded Templar monastery-fortresses provided suitable means for keeping the cloth’s whereabouts secret for a considerable period.”
The Maillard reaction in an ancient linen cloth can yield a “stochastic-like effect” image by Yannick Clement, Giovanni Fazio and Giuseppe Mandaglio, Chemistry Today, Vol. 34, November 2016. Here is the Abstract:
"Recently, we have pointed out that the distribution of the yellowed fibrils on the Shroud of Turin, well represented by a linear regression between the image intensity and the cloth-body distance, has a stochastic aspect. In this paper, by a preliminary approach, we show that the chemical reaction between reducing sugar coming from the linen manufacturing procedure (mainly composed of crude starch and possibly also Saponaria officinalis) and some specific post-mortem gases like ammonia and/or diamines that could have been released by the corpse who was enveloped in the Shroud can yield a “stochastic-like effect” image. Moreover, we think the above reaction could also explain why the body image on the Shroud is a unicum."
Man Of The Shroud Was Washed, The by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D.
This paper provides a scientific basis for the hypothesis that the Man of the Shroud had been washed prior to placement on the Shroud. Dr. Zugibe is a professor of anatomy and the Senior Medical Examiner of Rockland County, New York. His studies are based on the analysis of antemortem and postmortem blood flow patterns on cadavers and their comparison to those on the Shroud. A number of relevant facets of scripture and Jewish customs are also discussed. This article first appeared in Sindon N. S. in 1989. Three somewhat graphic photographs accompany the article. Parental Discretion Advised.
Mapping of Research Test Point Areas on the Shroud of Turin by Barrie M. Schwortz
Includes eight Ventral and Dorsal Photographic Maps of the Shroud indicating areas where data was taken during four of the 1978 experiments. Barrie Schwortz was the Official Documenting Photographer for STURP and devised the system of magnetic marker photo-documentation used to create these experiment maps. This is a reprint of the entire text of the 1982 IEEE paper. The photographic Test-Point Maps were rescanned from the original 4" x 5" negatives and the data points color enhanced specifically for this website.
Mark Antonacci's Reply To Ray Rogers' Review of His Book (.pdf format) [85k]
Mark Antonacci responds to Ray Rogers' review of his book, "The Resurrection of the Shroud."
Click here to read the original review: Comments on 'The Resurrection of the Shroud' by Mark Antonacci by Ray Rogers
Microscopical Investigation of Selected Raes Threads from the Shroud of Turin by John L. Brown (.pdf format) [190k] [January 2005]
John L. Brown was the Principal Research Scientist at the Georgia Tech Research Institute's Energy and Materials Sciences Laboratory at the Georgia Institute of Technology until his retirement in 1984. He is an expert microscopist specializing in the field of forensic analysis of material failures, and was enlisted by Ray Rogers to examine samples of selected Raes threads taken from the Shroud in 1973. These threads are important because they were taken from the area immediately adjoining the sample used for carbon 14 analysis of the Shroud in 1988. In this article, John provides an independent review of the samples he examined, along with seven previously unpublished photomicrographs and scanning electron microscope views that supplement and support the conclusions drawn by Ray in his recent peer reviewed paper, "Studies on the radiocarbon sample from the Shroud of Turin," Thermochimica Acta Vol. 425, Issues 1-2, 20 January 2005, Pages 189-194.
Microscopic and Macroscopic Characteristics of the Shroud of Turin Image Superficiality by G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, T. Heimburger, R. Schneider & N. Svensson
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, July/August 2010, Volume 54, Issue 4, pp. 040201-(8) (Abstract Only)
The Missing Corners and the Radiocarbon date of the Shroud of Turin by Pam Moon
Recently published on Pam's Shroud of Turin Exhibition website [7 June 2014]. "This paper looks at the mystery of the missing corners on the Shroud of Turin. Two corners were removed at some time and two are intact... This paper argues that the corners were removed because of water damage from douse water used to put out the fire that partially burned the Shroud in 1532. The contaminated douse water led to the formation of mould and bacteria on the cloth."
Mr. Dotman in Lineland by Robert A. Rucker, October 6, 2016. Academia.edu - Here is an excerpt from the Intrroduction:
"This is a short fictional story of Mr. Dotman in Lineland to convey what is meant by a transition into an alternate dimensionality. This concept has application to the Shroud of Turin to help explain what may have happened, in physics terms, when Jesus' body disappeared from within the Shroud..."
Multi-parametric micro-mechanical dating of single fibers coming from ancient flax textiles by Giulio Fanti and Pierandrea Malfi
Textile Research Journal, November 21, 2013. Abstract free. Full article available for purchase. [21 January 2014]
The Mysterious Coexistence of Bloodstains and Body Image on the Shroud of Turin Explained by a Stochastic Process by G. Fazio, Y. Clement and G. Mandaglio
Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry journal Vol.14, No. 2 - June 2014 [5 October 2014].
Natural Factors Affecting the Apparent Radiocarbon Age of Textiles by Mario Moroni and Remi van Haelst
The authors present a series of experiments and a statistical analysis of the Carbon dating that concludes "the C14 content may not be the same over the whole surface of the Shroud" and that "a single radiocarbon dating result... cannot be regarded as conclusive evidence for a mediaeval date for the Shroud of Turin." This article originally appeared in Shroud News No. 100 (February 1997). Remi van Haelst also presented another paper titled "The Lier Shroud" at the May 1997 Nice Symposium.
Natural Textile Fibres - Optical Activity, Racemization and Epimerization by Dr. Silvio Diana and Prof. Emanuela Marinelli Paolicchi
This paper was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It establishes the validity of and suggests a protocol for further research into the chemical and optical properties of cellulose, the fundamental ingredient of linen.
Nature of the Body Images on the Shroud of Turin, The by Alan D. Adler (.pdf format) [34k]
(From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Negativity and the Shroud by M. Sue Benford, R.N., M.A.
This article presents the author's perspective on the negativity aspect of the Shroud. It was previously published in The Holy Shroud Guild Newsletter, December 1997, pp. 4-5.
New Detail Observed on the Shroud of Turin, A by Reginald Wehrkamp-Richter
From News of the Association Jean Carmignac, N° 50, June 2011 page 5-9. Using a scientific approach and careful observation, the author presents evidence for the discovery of triangular shape within one of the Shroud bloodstains which he identifies as the head of a Roman nail. A version of the article is also available in French at Un nouveau détail observé sur le Saint Linceul de Turin. (Editor's Note: Although this article is primarily scientific in nature, it concludes on a strong religious note). [Jan 2012]
New Historical Evidence Explaining the ‘Invisible Patch’ in the 1988 C-14 Sample Area of the Turin Shroud by M. Sue Benford & Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [44k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference)
In this important followup article to their previous work, Sue and Joe provide additional historical background and new evidence for their "invisible mending" theory.
New Radiocarbon Hypothesis by John Jackson, A by John Jackson (.pdf format) [11k] [May 2008]
David Rolfe's 2008 BBC documentary features physicist John Jackson, co-founder of the 1978 STURP team and founder of the Turin Shroud Center of Colorado, and discusses his new hypothesis regarding the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud, based on possible c14 enrichment of linen due to the CO (carbon monoxide) in the atmosphere. According to Jackson, a 2% contamination could skew the resulting date by as much as 1400 years. Rather than attempt to describe Jackson's theory myself, I asked John to write a short article to describe it in his own words.
Non-destructive dating of ancient flax textiles by means of vibrational spectroscopy by Giulio Fanti, Pietro Baraldi, Roberto Basso and Anna Tinti Abstract Only [May 2013]
This controversial article appeared in Vibrational Spectroscopy, Volume 67, July 2013, Pages 61–70 and used FT-IR and Raman analyses to date ancient flax textiles.
Noninvasive analyses of low-contrast images on ancient textiles: The case of the Shroud of Arquata by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Massimiliano Guarneri, Daniele Murra, Valeria Spizzichino, Alessandro Danielis, Arianna Mencattini, Veronica Piraccini and Mauro Missori - Journal of Cultural Heritage - vol. 17, pp. 14-19 (2016). DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2015.07.008. Here is the abstract:
We present the results of the first in-depth measurements of the linen cloth of the shroud of Arquata, a precious copy of the Shroud of Turin, which dates back to 1653. The measurements aimed at finding the nature of the faint and low-contrast body impressions on the linen cloth, which are not produced by drawings or paintings as in the other copies of the Shroud of Turin. In general, the optical analysis and the imaging of low-contrast stains on ancient textiles is a complex task, due to the irregular surface and the influence of spectrum, position and uniformity of the illuminating source on colour accuracy and rendition. A correct evaluation requires a multidisciplinary approach. We used noninvasive technologies, including imaging topological radar, laser induced fluorescence, absolute diffused reflectance and absorption spectra, which were previously used to study frescoes, paintings, antique papers, but were never exploited on ancient textiles. The combined results of our measurements and data elaboration allowed identifying the origins of the body impressions, of the stains simulating blood and of the other marks embedded on the linen cloth. Our results can be used to plan the proper long-term conservation of the linen cloth and of marks on it.
Nuclear Medicine and Its Relevance to the Shroud of Turin by August D. Accetta, M.D. (.pdf format) [326k]
Originally titled "Experiments with Radiation as an Image Formation Mechanism" when first presented at the 1999 Richmond Conference. This link is to the updated version of this paper that Dr. Accetta presented in August 2000 at the Sindone 2000 Shroud Conference in Orvieto, Italy. Fully illustrated with color and black & white photographs.
Objections to the Shroud's Authenticity: The Radiocarbon Date by Prof. Daniel Scavone (.pdf format) [13k]
The author's perspective on the Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. Originally delivered at the Texas Medieval Association in 1993.
Optically Terminated Image Pixels Observed on Frei 1978 Samples with 7 color photographs. By Kevin E. Moran (.pdf format) [228k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
This excellent article describes some of the unique properties of the Shroud image and includes a number of fascinating photographs
Origin of the Shroud of Turin From the Near East as Evidenced by Plant Images And By Pollen Grains, The by Dr. Avinoam Danin (Abstract)
An Israeli botanical expert evaluates the plant and pollen evidence on the Shroud. This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium. Also available is a Belorussian translation, courtesy of Martha Ruszkowski, at Origin of the Shroud.
Pattern recognition after image processing of low-contrast images, the case of the Shroud of Turin by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra and Barrie Schwortz - Journal: Pattern Recognition, available online December 31, 2012.
Abstract: We discuss the potentially misleading effect of software techniques for elaborating low-contrast images. In particular, we present the example of the stains embedded into one of the most studied archaeological objects in history, the Shroud of Turin. We show for the first time that image processing of both old and recent photographs of the Shroud may lead some researchers to perceive inscriptions and patterns that do not actually exist, confirming that there is a narrow boundary between image enhancement and manipulation.
Perspectives for the Future Study of the Shroud by Bruno Barberis
A very important paper from the April 2012 Valencia Conference [26 August 2012]
Petrus Soons Responds To Garlaschelli (.pdf format) [16k]
On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is a preliminary response by Petrus Soons that was published on this website on October 7, 2009.
Photographic & Computer Studies Concerning the Burn & Water Stains Visible on the Shroud by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [536k]
This intriguing paper is another example of Aldo Guerreschi's thoughtful and thorough approach to Sindonology and one of his finest, strikingly visual presentations to date. It is profusely illustrated with 49 color photographs and illustrations.
Photometric Responses from the Shroud by Peter M. Schumacher (.pdf format) [24k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
This paper is written by the man who developed and installed the VP-8 Image Analyzer that was used by researchers in 1976 to scientifically visualize the dimensional (3-D) information encoded in the Shroud image for the first time.
Pierre Barbet Revisited by Frederick T. Zugibe, M.D., Ph.D.
Dr. Zugibe is the Medical Examiner of Rockland County, New York, and has made an in-depth study of crucifixion. His book, "The Cross and the Shroud," where he challenged the conclusions of Pierre Barbet, was published in 1982. This article first appeared in Sindon N. S. in 1995. Dr. Zugibe began his research on the Shroud and crucifixion in 1948 and reaches some interesting conclusions about death on the cross. Illustrated with nine photographs. CAUTION: The subject of this paper is crucifixion and it contains graphic illustrations. PARENTAL DISCRETION IS ADVISED.
Point of Nuclear Physics About the Shroud of Turin, A by Gildas Rouvillois
In this short article, the author disagrees with the tentative explanation of the controversial carbon dating of the Shroud by J.B.Rinaudo. Rinaudo surmised that simultaneous fluxes of protons and neutrons could explain both the image on the cloth (by the protons) and the 13-century slip of time of the carbon14 nuclei (by the neutrons).
The Politics of the Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud - Part I by Joseph G. Marino - 21 January 2016 - Here is a brief excerpt from the Introduction:
"...Part I looks at the years leading up to the dating. Part II will analyze the actual events of the day the sample was extracted. Part III will recount the aftermath, which continues to this day. The format will be a chronological listing, stating the information, the source used, and in some entries also my comments, which may cross reference other sources and also fill in some lacunae. I will periodically revise the article as information will need to be constantly adapted and added. It is my hope that you will find the article enlightening."
The Politics of the Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud - Part II by Joseph G. Marino - 1 June 2016
Part I was published in January but it has had numerous updates since. Here is a citation from Part II of a quote by the late Dr. Luigi Gonella, scientific advisor to the late Cardinal Ballestrero, referring to the C-14 scientists from the labs, which is most significant: "...it takes an intellectual effort to believe the results of somebody who behaved like that."
The Politics of the Radiocarbon Dating of the Turin Shroud - Part III by Joseph G. Marino - 19 September 2016
Part I was published in January and Part II was published in June, but they both have had additional material added to them. (Links to parts I and II can be found in Part III.) The author spent approximately 185 hours over the course of about 10 months researching and compiling this information, which is detailed on an unprecedented level. The author had access to some rare documents and information by those directly or closely involved in the C-14 dating process. The reader should be shocked at the degree to which politics affected the whole process.
Pollen on the Shroud of Turin: The Probable Trace Left by Anointing and Embalming by Marzia Boi, Archaeometry, 28 October 2016. Here is the Abstract:
"This study proposes an alternative interpretation of the pollen grains found on the Christian relic of the Shroud of Turin, the majority of which belong to entomogamous plants. The examination of the images in the literature and the observation of modern pollen under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the most abundant pollen on the relic may be attributed to the genus Helichrysum (Asteraceae family) instead of Gundelia tournefortii. The other most important pollen found belongs to the Cistaceae-Cistus spp.—the Apiaceae—probably Ferula spp.—and the Anacardianceae—the genus Pistacia. These pollen grains could have come from plants used to obtain expensive and valuable substances that would have been the basis for the oils of Helichrysum, ladanum and galbanum, as well as for mastic and terebinth products; this fact has not been considered by previous authors. Ancient historical records give us references that could link the pollen traces to a mixture of balms and ointments employed for preparing the body for funeral and burial. For this reason, the palynological study reveals coherency with these historical records about the rituals, as reported on by the important scientists Pliny the Elder and Dioscorides, dating back to the first century ad."
The presence of dye in the 1988 radiocarbon date samples of the Shroud of Turin by Pam Moon - Published December 8, 2015 on Pam's Shroud of Turin Exhibition website. Here is the opening paragraph of the article:
This paper argues that the radiocarbon date samples of the Shroud of Turin, dated by laboratories in Oxford, Arizona and Zurich in 1988 were contaminated by dye, mordant, plant gum and cotton. These were not removed by the pre-cleaning of the samples which invalidates the radiocarbon date results.
Pressed Flowers: Where Did the Shroud of Turin Originate? A Botanical Quest by Avinoam Danin
Flores Prensadas: ¿Dónde tuvo su origen la Sábana Santa de Turín? Una Investigación Botánica - En Español
This article was originally published in the November/December 1997 issue of "Eretz," the Geographic Magazine of Israel and created quite a stir when it first appeared. In it, the author claims that he analyzed impressions of flowers on the cloth and determined that the relic originated in Israel. Professor Danin is a botanist at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and is considered an expert on the flowers of Israel. He was first introduced to Shroud research by Alan Whanger, whose photographs accompany the article. I am pleased to reprint this article on the website and want to thank "Eretz" for their generous permission to do so.
Probabilistic Model to Quantify the Results of the Research on the Turin Shroud, A by Giulio Fanti & Emanuela Marinelli (.pdf format) [68k] (English)
Un modello probabilistico per quantificare i risultati delle ricerche sulla Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [63k] (Italian)
Results of a Probabilistic Model Applied to the Research carried out on the Turin Shroud (.pdf format) [165k] (English)
Risultati di un modello probabilistico applicato alle ricerche eseguite sulla Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [172k] (Italian)
These papers were originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and are available in both English and Italian versions.
Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation (ATSI 2014) by B. Barberis, F. Lattarulo, P. Di Lazzaro and D. Petri (Eds.). SHS Web of Conferences,Vol. 15 (2015), 2014 Workshop on Advances in the Turin Shroud Investigation (ATSI 2014), Bari, Italy, September 4–5, 2014.
This website provides free access to nine of the papers that were presented at the Bari conference.
Professional Arts and the Principle and Practice of Conservation, The - Restoration Versus the Turin Shroud by Isabel Piczek
In this paper the author expresses her concerns as a professional artist over future conservation plans for the Shroud and demonstrates why regarding the image as a painting will have serious impact on its preservation. This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium.
Gli scatti proibiti della Sindone (The Prohibited Photographs of the Shroud) - La Stampa 12 September 2013
This is an Italian language article published on September 12, 2013 in the newspaper La Stampa that reported that new evidence reveals an unauthorized series of photographs was made of the Shroud the night before Secondo Pia made the first official photographs in 1898! I expect we will be hearing more about this in the future. Here is a Google translation of the opening paragraphs:
The first official photos taken in the Cathedral of the Holy Shroud of Turin by Secondo Pia May 28, 1898, after two tests made May 25, were preceded by a series of illegal shots, so far unknown, made by an unauthorized photographer, A. Gallo, who acted the night before on 27 May and developed his plates on 1 June. This was announced by the Museum of the Holy Shroud, directed by Gian Maria Zaccone, who has received the gift of the photographs from the descendants of Gallo, the family Beltramo Ceppi of Milan.
Proposal for High Resolution Colorimetric Mapping of the Turin Shroud, A: Analysis of Metrological Problems by Giulio Fanti
The author is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Padua in Italy. Included here is the paper he presented at the Nice (France) Symposium in May of 1997. It proposes the use of high resolution digital colorimetric mapping of the Shroud to create a database that could be used for further scientific analyses and possibly lead to a better understanding of the image formation mechanism . In the article, which includes six illustrations, he describes the experiment and apparatus, discusses some of the problem areas that might be encountered and suggests possible solutions.
Prospects of Research of the Turin Shroud in Russia by Alexander Belyakov
The author is an orthodox physicist and graduate of Moscow University who is currently director of the Moscow Center of the Turin Shroud. Included here is the text of his presentation made at the Shroud conference in San Felice, Italy, on August 24-25, 1996. In it he discusses how changing ideologies have opened the door to Shroud research in Russia. He then presents his theories on the image formation mechanism of the Shroud. Also included at the end of the article is the text of another short presentation he made that discusses the reversed perspective rule in Orthodox iconography and its "genealogical" linkage of the Shroud of Turin to the Orthodox Mandylion.
Pyrolysis/Mass Spectrometry Applied to the Shroud of Turin by Ray Rogers
A technical paper from Ray Rogers that explains how Pyrolysis/Mass Spectrometry was used to detect impurities (like painting mediums) on samples of the Shroud of Turin. Interestingly, a gum coating was found on the fibers of the Raes Sample, a section cut from the Shroud in 1973 from an area directly adjoining the 1988 c14 sample. However, this gum coating was not found on any fibers from anywhere else on the Shroud. The tests provided quantitative evidence that the Raes sample and consequently, the adjoining 1988 c14 sample, were both anomalous and different from the rest of the Shroud. With this, and a significant amount of other corroborative scientific evidence, the validity of the 1988 c14 dating of the Shroud is even further in doubt.
Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin, by P. E. Damon, D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C.R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese & M. S. Tite.
This is the paper, reprinted from "Nature," the weekly journal in which it first appeared in February 1989, that concluded the Shroud is of medieval origin and dated the cloth to around 1325 A.D. It has had more impact on Shroud research than any other paper ever written on the subject. When first released, it was given considerable publicity and much of the world accepted its conclusions, virtually bringing all other Shroud research to a halt. In the last few years however, new evidence has suggested the possibility that a contaminant, in the form of a bioplastic coating, might have caused a skewing of the resultant date. Others have criticized the protocol followed by the laboratories, which was changed at the last minute from the one recommended by a panel of experts. Critically absent, according to several researchers, was any chemical analysis of the samples prior to testing. This has led a number of scientists to challenge the conclusions of the paper, which claims a "95% certainty" for the results. They point out that in biochemistry, total chemical analysis of a biological product is the first thing done to assure the reader that you have what you think you have. Anything less than that must be regarded as a preliminary characterization and should be so stated. They also point out that "Nature" is not a peer-reviewed journal. This is the first time the paper has ever appeared on the Internet. Considering the number of articles critical of the paper found on this website, I am pleased to give everyone an opportunity to finally read the actual paper for themselves. I am grateful to "Nature" for allowing me to reprint it and to Mr. Timothy Jull, of the University of Arizona, for providing me with an excellent copy and helping me get permission to include it here. I consider it an important addition to this website.
Editor's Note: I recently received a note from Mr. Jull in which he made the following comments:"I looked at the Shroud website recently and noted the addition of the Nature article. I noted some of the editorial remarks - I have a comment on one at this time. It is TOTALLY INCORRECT to state that Nature is not a peer-reviewed journal (I realize your comments attribute this remark to others...). This is not true. All papers for Nature are reviewed in the normal way for scientific publications. You can confirm from the editors of Nature this is correct. I think you should note this assertion is wrong on your web page. Otherwise, I find your site very interesting."
Radiocarbon Dating The Shroud of Turin - A Critical Statistical Analysis by Remi Van Haelst
First published after the release of the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud in 1988, this was one of the first papers to scientifically refute the claimed 95% confidence for the mediaeval age of the cloth. I should point out that this is a very technical paper and may be somewhat difficult for some viewers to understand. This is an updated version done in 1997.
Radiocarbon Dating The Shroud of Turin - The Nature Report by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [94k]
The author's newly updated response that scientifically refutes the 1989 carbon dating article that appeared in the weekly journal "Nature." Remi's articles are usually quite technical, and this one is no exception. For experts.
Radiocarbon Measurement and the Age of the Turin Shroud: Possibilities and Uncertainties by William Meacham
This is one of the first published scientific papers that dealt with carbon dating the Shroud of Turin. It was presented by William Meacham, a noted archaeologist, at the 1986 Shroud Symposium in Hong Kong. In it, the author expresses his concerns that "contamination is a very serious problem in interpreting the results of radiocarbon measurement," and examines the issue of the reliability of C-14 testing to produce an 'absolute date' on the Shroud. Meacham took part in the Turin Workshop in late September 1986 at which the carbon dating protocol was determined, but was ultimately excluded from any further involvement in the dating of the Turin Shroud.
Radiological Aspects of the Shroud of Turin (Excerpt) by Alan D. Whanger and Mary Whanger (.pdf format) [431k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (20 color photos and illustrations)
For this part of his paper, Alan examined the 1978 STURP x-rays and detected apparent anomalies in the area from which the 1988 radiocarbon sample was taken, confirming some of Ray Rogers' observations.
A Ray of Light on the Shroud of Turin by Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra, ENEA Research Centre of Frascati. From the Proceedings of the Conference "FIAT LUX - Let there be light" held in Rome on 3-5 June 2015. Here is a brief excerpt from the abstract:
"In this paper we summarize the state-of-the art of the scientific research on the Shroud, from the multidisciplinary STuRP analyses (1978) to the radiocarbon dating (1988), from biological and DNA clues to the linen irradiation experiments at the ENEA, till the illusory perception of low contrast stains on the Shroud."
Ray Rogers 1988 Letter to Giovanni Fazio
This is a link to a letter Rogers wrote to Prof. Fazio dated 16 February 1988, which mainly consisted of Rogers commenting on experiments using modern linen and making an observation that lignin "gradually changes its chemical composition with time."
Raymond N. Rogers’ observations and conclusions concerning the body image that is visible on the Shroud of Turin by Yannick Clément [21 January 2013]
This extensively researched paper (published on Pete Schumacher's Shroudnm.com website) provides a list of the most important quotes concerning the Shroud body image taken from Raymond N. Rogers’ official publications written during the period 2002-2005. Includes complete references.
Recent Historical Investigations on the Sudarium of Oviedo by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [50k] (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Member of the Investigation Team of the Centro Espanol de Sindonlogia and the British Society for the Turin Shroud. Mr. Guscin's book on the Sudarium of Oviedo, The Oviedo Cloth, was published in 1998 by the Lutterworth Press.
Red Stains on the Lier and Other Shroud Copies, The by Remi Van Haelst
Remi Van Haelst is a researcher from Belgium and is also a member of CIELT, the group that sponsored the May 1997 Nice Symposium where this paper was first presented. His paper discusses many of the known Shroud replicas and copies and compares them to the original. He also discusses the four sets of "L shaped" burn holes in the Shroud that probably predate the 1532 fire. The article includes four detailed color photographic closeups of the burn holes as well as a transmitted light image of the Shroud. Since Remi used several of my photographs for his research, I have taken the liberty of annotating certain portions of the text and adding a graphic to the article for further clarity.
The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II] by Lloyd A. Currie. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Volume 109, Number 2, March-April 2004. Although this is an older paper, it includes a substantial section on the Shroud of Turin that you might find interesting. Here is an excerpt from the abstract:
"This article traces the metrological history of radiocarbon, from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that have brought 14C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for “molecular dating” at the 10 ìg to 100 ìg level."
Report on the Czechia Shroud Copy by Dr. Leo Bazant-Hegemark
Dr. Leo Bazant-Hegemark, a Shroud researcher in Austria, recently made a field trip to Czechia to examine the previously unknown Shroud copy discovered there in January 1999. Dr. Bazant was kind enough to send me a letter with details from his trip journal, along with a number of photographs of the hand painted cloth. A letter of authenticity signed by the Archbishop of Turin was also found with the copy, which was originally made in 1651. I have included excerpts from Dr. Bazant's letter (along with five color photographs), in this informal article. My sincere thanks to Dr. Bazant for his kindness in sharing this information with us.
“Restoration” of the Turin Shroud, The: A Conservation And Scientific Disaster by William Meacham
This is the full article that appeared in e-conservation magazine, No. 13 (February 2010) pp. 28-42. I think its title speaks for itself.
Review of Botany of the Shroud: The Story of Floral Images on the Shroud of Turin By Avinoam Danin by Diana Fulbright
This is a review of Avinoam Danin's 2010 book in which the author details his botanical studies of the Shroud and discusses the floral images he has observed. (Written exclusively for shroud.com)
Review of the Picknett/Prince book: "The Turin Shroud: In Whose Image" by Prof. Daniel C. Scavone
This is a review of the 1994 book by Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince that concludes Leonardo Da Vinci created the Shroud of Turin. The review, written by noted Shroud author and historian Daniel C. Scavone, Professor of History at the University of Southern Indiana, is the first available by a qualified Shroud researcher. This review discusses their theories in detail and challenges their conclusions, point by point. Professor Scavone's well researched book on the history of the Shroud, "THE SHROUD OF TURIN: OPPOSING VIEWPOINTS," was published in 1989.
Review of 'Test the Shroud' by Mark Antonacci by Robert A. Rucker - Academia.edu - June 28, 2016. [19 Sept 2016]
No additional comments provided.
Revisiting a pure stochastic mechanism to explain the body image formation on the Linen of Turin by Giovanni Fazio, Giuseppe Mandaglio and Antonio Anastasi - The Journal of The Textile Institute, Published online: 30 Nov 2016. [21 January 2017] Here is the abstract:
"In this paper, we revisit a pure stochastic process as a possible mechanism of the Shroud body image formation. Successively, we make a comparison with another mechanism that uses the Maillard reaction as source of a ‘stochastic-like effect’ image. Both the mechanisms seem to be able to explain all the chemical and physical characteristics of the Shroud image. However, an experimental confirm of the possible colouration by the Maillard reaction could be, easily, verified. On the contrary, for obtaining a pure stochastic effect, it is necessary to await the result of the experiment for years or decades. Indeed, the latency times, for the two images’ formation are very different."
Review of 'The Shroud of Turin: Radiation Effects, Aging, and Image Formation' by Ray Rogers by Robert A. Rucker, Giulio Fanti, Mark Antonacci, Tony Flemming, and Keith Propp - Academia.edu - June 28, 2016.
Here is a link to Rogers' 2005 paper to facilitate consideration of arguments pro and con.
Role of Capillarity in the Image Formation Process by Marcel Alonso (.pdf format) [293k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (13 color photos)
In this interesting paper, Marcel examines the properties of the bloodstains and images on the Shroud in light of recent research by Ray Rogers and others.
Role of the Internet in the Future of Shroud Research, The by Barrie M. Schwortz
This paper was originally delivered at the 1998 Turin Symposium on June 7, 1998. It presents in detail the many ways that the Internet will be used to further Shroud research in the future. It features direct links to references and sites examples that are already in use on this and other websites. The author is the host and webmaster of The Shroud of Turin Website, the largest and most extensive Shroud resource on the Internet.
Link to Il Ruolo Di Internet Nel Futuro Della Ricerca Sulla Sindone (Italian Language version of this paper on the Collegamento pro Sindone Website).
Role of the Internet in Current Shroud Research, The by Barrie M. Schwortz (.pdf format) [31k]
Demonstrating new developments on his fascinating, invaluable and award-winning website on the Shroud of Turin. (From the 1999 Richmond Conference)
Role of Radiation in Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin by Robert A. Rucker, October 11, 2016. Academia.edu - Here is an excerpt from the Abstract:
"Formation of the image on the Shroud required three things: a discoloration mechanism, energy, and information. There must have been some process or mechanism that caused discoloration on the top portions of the fibers that make up the image on the Shroud. Energy would have been required for the functioning of the discoloration mechanism to alter the covalent bonds of the carbon atoms in the cellulose molecules that caused the discoloration..."
Science and the Shroud of Turin by Robert J. Spitzer, S.J., Ph. D., May 2015, Magis Center of Reason and Faith. [19 Sept 2016]
Father Robert Spitzer, S.J., Ph.D. is a highly respected scholar, author and lecturer and President of the Magis Center of Reason and Faith, an organization that provides responses to four popular secular myths: 1. The false conflict between Faith and Science. 2. The false conflict between Suffering and the Love of God. 3. The false conflict between Virtue and Freedom. 4. The false conflict between the historical Jesus and “the Jesus of the Gospels.” Father Spitzer is also the host of the popular television program "Father Sptizer's Universe" on EWTN. In this article he reviews the scientific and historical data and provides his own perspective on the Shroud of Turin.
"Science by Press Release?" An Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf format) [10k]
On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is an editorial response by Barrie Schwortz published on this website on October 7, 2009.
"Science by Press Release (Again)" Another Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf format) [12k]
On November 20, 2009, Italian researcher Barbara Frale issued a press release to the Associated Press, announcing she had discovered inscriptions on the Shroud image that proves it is authentic. This is an editorial response by Barrie Schwortz published on this website on November 21, 2009.
Scientific Analysis of the Shroud of Turin (Abstract) by Leoncio A. Garza-Valdes, M.D. No longer available. Sorry.
This link is to an article found on the Holy Shroud Guild Website and presents the Abstract of Dr. Garza-Valdes' recent research. This was first presented at the Texas Medieval Association on September 11, 1993 in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. (NOTE: This is a link to a different website. You will need to use your browser's "back" button to return to this page.)
The scientific approach vs the open ‘Linen of Turin questions’ is it the right one? by Giovanni Fazio. The Journal of The Textile Institute, Published online: 26 Jan 2016. Article behind pay wall. Here is the abstract:
"In this paper, we discuss the possible influences on the final results due to faith or nonfaith of researchers which study the Linen of Turin. Moreover, we show the state of confusion generated by self-styled scientists through interventions in modest reviews and web censor articles published in peer-reviewed International Journals. In addition, in order to avoid future inextricable confusion (so-called Babel’s Tower), we remember the simple rules that must be adopted with the aim to solve the still open 'Shroud questions'. "
Scientific Issues and Shroud Research in the 1990's by Larry A. Schwalbe
Written in 1990, this article provides the author's perspective on the future of Shroud research. Larry Schwalbe was an original member of STURP, the team that performed the first in-depth scientific examination of the Shroud in 1978 and has published many papers on the subject. This paper also originally appeared in "Shroud Spectrum International" and again I thank Dorothy Crispino, publisher and editor, for permission to reprint it here. The article can also be accessed via the "Shroud Conservation" page.
Scientific Method Applied to the Shroud of Turin: A Review by Raymond N. Rogers and Anna Arnoldi (.pdf format) [564k] [August 2002] (Includes 27 color illustrations)
Provides an excellent overview of known Shroud data, documents his chemical analysis of Shroud samples relevant to the Marino/Benford hypothesis, reviews other Shroud theories relative to the C-14 analysis and even points out corroboration for the Marino/Benford theory in the ultraviolet-fluorescence photographs made in 1978.
The Scorch Hypothesis: New Experiments by Thibault Heimburger [5 October 2014]
This paper is a follow up to Thibault's earlier paper The Turin Shroud Body Image: The Scorch Hypothesis Revisited, originally published in October 2012 on Dan Porter's Shroud blog. In both articles, Thibault tries to answer the question: Is the Shroud of Turin image a scorch? As always, Thibault's experiments are detailed and meticulous and his report is profusely illustrated with many photographs and illustrations.
Sermon of Gregory Referendarius, The by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [110k] [January 2004] (Includes photograph of original manuscript)
In this extremely important paper, Mark, an expert linguist, translates the sermon given by Gregory Referendarius in 944. The sermon was pronounced on the occasion of the arrival of the Image of Edessa in Constantinople. It was translated into English from the only known surviving manuscript of the sermon, recently rediscovered in the Vatican Archives by Italian classics scholar Gino Zaninotto.Addendum to Translation of Sermon by Gregory Referendarius by Mark Guscin (.pdf format) [18k] [January 2008] (Update to his earlier paper)
In his introduction to this 2008 update of the above paper, Mark Guscin states: "Further consideration and consultation about the Greek text of the sermon attributed to Gregory Referendarius has led to me reconsider my original position about the supposed reference to the side wound."
The Shroud: A Critical Summary of Observations, Data and Hypotheses by Robert W. Siefker and Dr. Daniel S. Spicer [Updated October 2014]
The only purpose of TSC’s Critical Summary is to provide a synthesis of the TSC team’s thinking and understanding about the Shroud. Our evaluation of scientific, medical forensic and historical hypotheses presented here is based on TSC’s internal research, STURP data, studies by other groups or persons as appropriate, and published literature. (From a separate Preface to the article).
The Shroud Blood Science of Dr. Pierluigi Baima Bollone: Another look at potassium, among other things by Kelly Kearse and Thibault Heimburger [21 January 2014]
In this excellent paper, recently published on Dan Porter's Shroud of Turin Blog, Kelly Kearse joins forces with noted French Shroud scholar Dr. Thibault Heimburger to provide an excellent evaluation of Prof. Baima-Bollone's work and a comparison of his work to that of STURP researchers Dr. Alan Adler and Dr. John Heller.
Shroud in the News for Christmas 2011, The - An Editorial Response by Barrie Schwortz [January 21, 2012]
Editorial response addressing the many Shroud stories that permeated the news just before Christmas 2011.
Shroud-like Coloration of Linen by Nanosecond Laser Pulses in the Vacuum Ultraviolet by P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, A. Santoni, G. Baldacchini - ENEA Report. A similar paper by the same authors also appeared in the peer reviewed journal Applied Optics, Vol. 51, Issue 36, pp. 8567-8578 (2012), titled Superficial and Shroud-like coloration of linen by short laser pulses in the vacuum ultraviolet. [21 January 2013]
Abstract: We present a survey on five-years experiments of excimer laser irradiation of linen fabrics, seeking for a coloration mechanism able to reproduce the microscopic complexity of the body image embedded onto the Shroud of Turin. We achieved a superficial Shroud-like coloration in a narrow range of irradiation parameters. We also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial or natural aging of linen following laser irradiations that at first did not generate any visible effect. Most importantly, we have recognized distinct photo-chemical processes that account for both coloration and latent coloration. These processes may have played a role in the generation of the body image on the Shroud of Turin.
Shroud "Make Over", The: Science or Marketing? by Bruno Barberis
On October 6, 2009, Italian Prof. Luigi Garlaschelli issued a press release to the Reuters News Service, announcing he had "reproduced" the Shroud image using medieval technologies, thus proving it a fake. This is a link to the response by Bruno Barberis published on the Archdiocese of Turin website on October 9, 2009.
The Shroud of Turin by Raymond F. Hain III. Homiletic and Pastoral Review, Published online March 23, 2016 . Here is a brief excerpt from the article:
"The Shroud of Turin was on public display from April 19, 2015 through June 24, 2015 in the Cathedral of St John the Baptist in Turin, Italy. More than two million visitors came to Turin from around the world to view the Shroud. 'Some say the 14-foot piece of linen is Christ’s burial cloth. They point to what appears to be the imprinted image of a man bearing wounds from a crucifixion. Others say the whole thing is a medieval forgery. Regardless, the shroud has remained a wildly popular attraction for pilgrims from around the world.'”
The Shroud of Turin - A Critical Assessment by Atle Ottesen Søvik
This article is a translation of the article “Likkledet i Torino – en kritisk vurdering," published in Teologisk Tidsskrift (Journal of Theology), no 3, 2013: 266-294 [7 June 2014] - This article discusses the question of whether the Shroud of Turin is the real burial cloth of Jesus, and it consists of four parts. First I present facts about the Shroud. Then I discuss whether the image comes from a corpse or is artificially produced another way, and conclude that it comes from a corpse. This means that if it is a forgery, a corpse was used to create the image. After that, I briefly discuss whether it may be the burial cloth of an unknown crucified man, and argue that it must be the burial cloth of Jesus or a forgery meant to resemble Jesus. Finally, I discuss the crucial question of when the image was formed: is it a forgery from the fourteenth century or is it the real burial cloth of Jesus from AD 30?
Shroud of Turin and Sudarium of Oviedo, Possible Burial Fabrics at the Tomb of Jesus of Nazareth (English) - Sudario de Oviedo y Síndone de Turin, Posibles Linzos Sepulcrales de Jesús de Nazaret (en español) by Guillermo Heras Moreno, Vice-President of Research and Training, Spanish Center for Sindonology (Centro Español de Sindonologia - CES), August 2016. [Editor's Note: This is a summary of data compiled over the years by the CES, some of which has been previously published in papers at various conferences. This is the most up-to-date and fully illustrated summary of their findings, available in both English and Spanish language versions]. Here is a brief excerpt from the introduction:
"Can we relate the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin as belonging to the same corpse? If so, is it reasonable to believe this may have been the corpse of Jesus of Nazareth? In other words: Are the Sudarium of Oviedo and the Shroud of Turin the burial cloths mentioned in the Gospel texts as "Shroud" in the Synoptics and "Sudarium" in the Gospel of John?"
Shroud of Turin's 'Blood' Images, The: Blood, or Paint? History of Science Inquiry by David Ford (.pdf format) [118k]
David brings a fresh point-of-view to this often-debated topic with his thoroughly researched conclusions. He was a frequent contributor to alt.turin-shroud, the Shroud Newsgroup hosted by Bill Meacham.
Shroud of Turin, The: An Amino-Carbonyl Reaction (Maillard Reaction) May Explain The Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers and Anna Arnoldi (.pdf format) [196k] [July 2004] (Includes 4 color illustrations).
This paper originally appeared in Melanoidins vol. 4, Ames J.M. ed., Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2003, pp.106-113. The paper demonstrates that a complex but well documented, naturally occurring chemical reaction may explain all of the known image chemistry of the Shroud of Turin and provide us with an important clue in determining the actual image formation mechanism. Ray's work is detailed and scientific and necessarily, quite technical in nature. Even if you don't have a degree in chemistry, the points he makes are quite understandable, the papers are well researched and well written and the conclusions are very clear.
Shroud of Turin and Its Radiodating, The by Maria-Grazia Siliato from the 1993 Rome Shroud Symposium - Translation by Dr. Augusto Monacelli [5 October 2014]
This paper was originally presented at the 1993 Rome Shroud Symposium, long before Benford and Marino conducted their research. In it, Siliato discusses evidence of repairs and extraneous woven materials detected in Shroud samples and states, among other things, "It was manipulated many times for mending and restoration works."
Shroud of Turin, The: Genuine Artifact or Manufactured Relic? by Jack Kilmon
This is a link to an article that appeared in "The Glyph," the Journal of the Archaeological Institute of America (San Diego). Mr. Kilmon argues in favor of authenticity and offers a comprehensive review of the scientific facts about the Shroud, siting references for many of them. The article includes closeup photographs of the Shroud and an illustration of the entombed and enshrouded Jesus of Nazareth found in a prayer book from Budapest known as the Pray Manuscript. Kilmon states, "The illustration not only depicts the unique "L" pattern of burn holes but also the unique weave pattern of the shroud. There can be no mistake that the Pray Manuscript of 1192 was modeled from the Shroud of Turin."
Shroud of Turin, The: A Historiographical Approach by Tristian Casabianca (Abstract Only) [May 2013]
Criteria of historical assessment are applied to the Turin Shroud to determine which hypothesis relating to the image formation process is the most likely. To implement this, a ‘Minimal Facts’ approach is followed that takes into account only physicochemical and historical data receiving the widest consensus among contemporary scientists.
Shroud of Turin, The: Radiation Effects, Aging & Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [198k] [June 2005]
In the last months of his life, Ray was able to obtain a new source for irradiating linen with various types of radiation. Using this source, he performed a series of experiments and observations and wrote this final article detailing his conclusions regarding radiation as an image formation mechanism on the Shroud. It includes 12 color and b&w photomicrographs.
Sight and brain: an introduction to the visually misleading images by Daniele Murra [May 2010] (From the Proceedings of the 2010 Frascati Conference)
This paper clearly explains how the limits of human visual perception come into play when studying the image(s) on the Shroud of Turin. I consider it a must read for any serious Shroud scholar.
The socio-politic of a relic: carbon dating the Turin Shroud - Ph.D. dissertation by H. Laverdiere, University of Bath, 1989. The dissertation is free to download with registration. Here is an excerpt from the abstract:
"The Michelin guide to Italy gives it 3 stars. It is probably the most widely known Christian relic. It is kept in a brownish chapel in Turin's Cathedral, next to the Palazzo Reale. The present Pope, John Paul II, is said to have a longstanding special interest in it. On the few occasions when it has been displayed in the last centuries, millions of visitors have been to view it... This thesis deals with the scientific investigation it generated and more specifically the carbon dating test which was performed in 1988 and was seen by most as the test to end all tests."
Some Details About the STURP Quad Mosaic Images by Barrie Schwortz [May 2013]
This article was originally written in 2003 and was made available only to the online Shroud Science Group. Ray Rogers had pointed out in a posting to the group that this image is another important piece of scientific evidence supporting the belief that the area sampled for the C14 dating in 1988 was anomalous. I wrote the article with the assistance of Jean Lorre, original STURP imaging team member from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, who had performed the image processing. I updated it in 2011 since the topic of the STURP Quad Mosaic images continues to be discussed and debated.
Stochastic distribution of the fibrils that yielded the Shroud of Turin body image by Fazio, G. and Mandaglio, G.
(2011), Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids, 166: 7, 476 — 479, First published on: 13 April 2011 (iFirst) (Abstract Only without Subscription) [Jan 2012]
Stochastic effects and corona discharge for the Shroud body image generation by Giovanni Fazio & Giuseppe Mandaglio - The Journal of The Textile Institute, Vol. 106, No. 8, 904-906, 26 September 2014. Abstract only. [1 November 2015] Here is the abstract:
"Answers and specifications to the comments of G. Fanti on our recent work are presented. G. Fanti invited us to revise our work, taking into account the recent discoveries on the Shroud of Turin: double superficiality of the image, corona discharge as possible source of the image formation, and continuous variation of color density of the linen fibrils. Our work was mainly devoted to investigate the macroscopic process able to explain almost all characteristics of the Shroud body image, and for such a purpose cited literature was appropriate. About the microscopic processes able to trigger the yellowing of the fibrils constituting the Shroud body image, we could also consider the corona discharge, but further investigations and deepening are necessary."
A Stochastic Process to Explain the Turin Shroud Body Image Formation by Giovanni Fazio.
Journal of Modern Mathematics Frontier (JMMF), Volume 2 Issue 3, September 2013. Full paper available. [Dec 2013]
Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin by Raymond N. Rogers [January 2005] (Full Paper) [Sept 2010]
Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin by Raymond N. Rogers [January 2005] (Abstract Only)
This is a link to Ray's final peer reviewed paper on the Shroud in Thermochimica Acta . It was published on January 20, 2005, only five weeks before his death. In it, Ray proved that the sample used for the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud in 1988 was anomalous. This is probably the most important research paper Ray ever published on the Shroud and is arguably, the most important scientific paper published on the Shroud in last 18 years period. It is the first peer reviewed science to openly challenge the radiocarbon dating of 1988.
Study of a Vision System for the Colorimetric Mapping of the Turin Shroud by M. De Cecco & G. Fanti (.pdf format) [197k] (English)
Studio di un sistema di visione per la mappatura colorimetrica della Sindone di Torino (.pdf format) [192k] (Italian)
This paper was originally presented at the 1998 Turin Symposium and is available in both English and Italian versions. It includes many color and black & white illustrations.
Studying Radiocarbon Papers May Solve the Enigma of the Radiocarbon Dating of the Shroud of Turin by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [72k] [Sept 2010]
This is a new paper from well known Shroud scholar Remi Van Haelst, who has authored several previous ones that can all be found on this website. Much of Remi's work is in evaluating the 1988 radiocarbon dating using statistical analysis and data from the original c14 dating and other papers. Remi's articles are usually quite technical, and this one is no exception. For experts.
"STURP II" Testing Proposals 1984-88
William Meacham, Hong Kong based archaeologist and highly respected Shroud scholar, has archived a wealth of important historical information about the STURP team in the 1980's on this web page. He includes links to 1) a Summary of the STURP 1984 testing proposals, 2) the Complete STURP 1984 testing proposals (this is a very large file of 181 pages and 46 MB), 3) the STURP 1987 testing proposals (in 4 parts), 4) correspondence between Steve Lukasic (of STURP) and Meacham and 5) the STURP 1988 testing proposals. Our thanks to Bill for making this valuable information available.
O Sudário de Turim: Entre a história da arte e a Datação do Carbono 14 (The Shroud of Turin: Between Art History and Carbon 14 Dating) by by Antônio Jackson de Souza Brandão
This link is to the complete paper (in pdf format) of a Portuguese language article published in the online Brazilian journal Lumen et Virtus, nº 10, vol. v, March 2014. Here is a synopsis: When published in 1989, the test results of carbon 14 of the Turin Shroud, led many scientists, agnostics and theists of various religious associations to celebrate their results on the "unmasking" of the strange relic. They forgot, however, that the history of art, documented for centuries, demonstrates exactly the opposite, its imagery making inconceivable [dates] between 1260 to 1390, a period appointed as its probable creation.
Sudarium of Oviedo, The by Mark Guscin
This paper discusses in detail the Sudarium, a bloodstained cloth from Oviedo, Spain that some believe is the "face cloth" that wrapped the head of Jesus in the tomb. It was first presented at the Nice Symposium in May 1997 and can also be accessed via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this site. Mark is a member of CIELT, the French organization that sponsored the symposium, as well as a member of the Centro España de Sindonología, the organization directly responsible for research on the sudarium. This fascinating paper describes the sudarium in detail and explains its relationship to the Shroud of Turin. It includes five color photographs.
Sudarium of Oviedo, The: A Study of Fiber Structures by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [219k] [Written 2004, Published 2008] (Includes 7 color photomicrographs)
This paper was originally written in 2004, when Ray Rogers examined linen fiber samples from the Sudarium of Oviedo at the request of the Oviedo authorities. He submitted this paper to them for their approval, which they gave, and Ray planned to ultimately have it published on this website. Sadly, he set it aside for other Shroud research and it almost was lost after his death, but thanks to Joanna Emery, noted Shroud author who discovered its existence during her correspondence with the Oviedo authorities, it was "found" again and read (by Joanna) at the August 2008 Ohio Shroud Conference. I am pleased to finally be able to include it here.
Summarizing a Set of Radiocarbon Determinations: A Robust Approach by Dr J.A. Christen
This paper was published in Applied Statistics, Vol. 43, No. 3. (1994), pp. 489-503, in 1994 and corroborates the findings of the 1988 radiocarbon dating of the Shroud. The above link takes you to a page where one can only read the Abstract and Introduction. The Shroud-related section of the article (Example 2 page 498), is only available by purchasing the entire article.
In my May 2008 correspondence with Dr. Christen, he made the following statement regarding the article:You could include my paper in your list as an early analysis before the origin of the samples themselves were questioned.
Yes, my analysis corroborates the results of the 1988 dating, but this is only conditional of the fact that the dated material was indeed part of the Shroud. This latter fact is now disputed, as I understand. I don't think there is any substantial error in the c14 dating and its subsequent analysis, but apparently the samples did not belong to the Shroud itself. The C14 labs had no chance whatsoever.
Summary of Challenges to the Authenticity of the Shroud of Turin by Richard B. Sorensen (.pdf format) [117k] [July 2007]
In this paper Richard addresses every major challenge to the Shroud's authenticity and provides nearly 70 linked references to support the evidence he presents.
Systematic Approach for Understanding the Image Formation on the Shroud of Turin, A by Dr. Jose Luis Fernandez (.pdf format) [45k] [September 2005]
This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005.
Tantalizing Photograph Of Some Oxford Samples, A by Remi Van Haelst (.pdf format) [283k] [November 2007]
Remi states: In my archives I found a paper which I forgot to publish. Is it possible to include it on your website? The "off the record" dates provided by Bottema are very important. (EDITOR'S NOTE: Thanks to the kind input of highly observant website viewer Gian Marco Rinaldi, I discovered that this article originally appeared in 2001 on the Collegamento pro Sindone website, www.shroud.it. Thank you Gian for your valuable input).
Ten Years of Important Events in the History of the Holy Shroud by Prof. Bruno Barberis and Prof. Piero Savarino (.pdf format) [26k] [September 2005]
This paper was originally presented at the Third International Dallas Shroud Conference in September 2005. (Editor's Note: This link is to a text-only reprint of the article from the BSTS Newsletter No. 62 and does not include illustrations)
Testing the Jackson Theory of Image Formation by Raymond N. Rogers (.pdf format) [127k] [July 2004] (Includes 8 color and b&w illustrations)
In this article Ray reviews the controversial image formation mechanism proposed in recent years by Dr. John Jackson, co-founder of the STURP team. It presents Ray's frank, empirical and detailed point of view of Dr. Jackson's theory.Comments on Rogers' "Testing the Jackson 'Theory' of Image Formation" by John Jackson and Keith Propp (.pdf format) [21k] [July 2004]
In this article, John and Keith respond specifically to a number of the points made by Ray in his article. As occurs so often in the world of the Shroud, there is disagreement, even amongst the experts. Once again, you will have to evaluate the materials yourself and make up your own mind.
Textile Evidence Supports Skewed Radiocarbon Date of Shroud of Turin by M. Sue Benford and Joseph G. Marino (.pdf format) [73k] [August 2002] (Includes 2 color photos)
Provides additional evidence for their conclusions about the reweaving, but goes a step further. The researchers submitted their original paper to a number of internationally recognized experts for review. This paper includes the criticisms they received, along with their specific responses.
There is no mass spectrometry evidence that the C14 sample from the Shroud of Turin comes from a “medieval invisible mending” by Marco Bella, Luigi Garlaschelli, Roberto Samperia - Science Direct, Thermochimica Acta Volume 617, 10 October 2015, Pages 169–171 - Abstract only. [1 November 2015] Here is the abstract:
This is an editorial regarding a paper published on Thermochimica Acta (R.N. Rogers, Thermochimca Acta, 425 (2005) 189–194). A close-up analysis of the pyrolysis-mass spectra reported in the original paper reveals that the differences found between the samples coming from different parts of the Shroud are just due to the presence of a contaminant with a long aliphatic chain. Except for the presence of the contaminant, the two pyrolysis-mass spectra look alike rather than different. Therefore, the pseudoscientific theory stating that the C14 sample might come from a “medieval invisible mending” remains unsupported by evidences.
Rebuttal to the above article available online 20 January 2016 in Thermochimica Acta:Comments on the mass spectrometry analysis of a sample of the Shroud of Turin by Bella et al. by Mario Latendresse - Science Direct, Thermochimica Acta Volume 624, 20 January 2016, Pages 55-58. Mario has written an interesting rebuttal to the editorial, but check and download it quickly. It will go behind a pay wall after February 12, 2016. Here is a key excerpt from the abstract:
"...The main conclusion of Bella et al. was 'No diagnostic peak in the pyrolysis mass spectra indicates a significant difference in the two samples, besides hydrocarbon-derived contamination. Therefore, none of the presented data supports the conclusion by Rogers.' We show that the technical analysis of Bella et al. of the mass spectra is incorrect and that their main conclusion is unconfirmed, in particular that a 'contaminant' would be present on the second sample analyzed."
Three Papers from the Oxford Laboratory Website - Thanks to Joe Marino we learned that the Oxford website has some information on supplementary material for the 1989 Nature report as well as two general C-14 articles by Prof. Ramsey (a.k.a. C.R. Bronk, which is how he is listed in the Nature article). [Editors Note: When you click on the individual links to the papers on the Oxford website (or below), you will not be taken to a web page, Instead, the pdf version of the selected file will be automatically downloaded to the Downloads folder on your hard drive. Note that every time you click on the link another copy will be downloaded, so only click once and check your Downloads folder. As of this writing you cannot read the papers online].
- Deposition models for chronological records, Bronk Ramsey, C.,(2008), Quaternary Science reviews, 27, 42-60
- Dealing with outliers and offsets in radiocarbon dating, Bronk Ramsey C. 2009, Radiocarbon 51(3)
- Supplementary information from ORAU for: Damon et. al. 1989. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. Nature 337, 611 - 615
3-D Processing to Evidence Characteristics Represented in Manoppello Veil by Jan S. Jaworski and Giulio Fanti (.pdf format) [273k] [January 2008]
This paper documents the researchers' use of 3-D processing techniques comparing the face of the Shroud of Turin with that of the Manoppello Veil.
3D Properties of the Shroud (Revised) by O.K. - Shroud of Turin Blog - October 1, 2015 [1 November 2015]
Regular blog contributor O.K. has produced an excellent four part, fully illustrated presentation that goes into great detail explaining and analyzing the so-called 3D properties of the Shroud image. This presentation is definitely worth your time. Here are direct links to each part: Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3 - Part 4.
The Turin Shroud Body Image: The Scorch Hypothesis Revisited by Thibault Heimburger [21 January 2013]
In recent months, the rather dated Scorch Hypothesis of image formation has found some new and rather vocal supporters on the Shroud blogs. This excellent article by noted Shroud researcher Thibault Heimburger reviews the known data, details his latest experiments and presents his newest evidence (including many color photographs) that challenges this hypothesis in great detail. It was originally posted on Dan Porter's blog in October 2012. Here is an excerpt from Thibault's conclusions: "The TS image is not a scorch, even a light scorch. In fact, this old hypothesis is very easy to rule out definitively as the body image formation mechanism with some basic experiments and a microscope." Make sure to read Thibault's follow up article published in April 2014 titled, The Scorch Hypothesis: New Experiments.
Turin Shroud: Compatibility Between a Digitized Body Image and a Computerized Anthropomorphous Manikin by G. Fanti, R. Basso & G. Bianchini
Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, [Sep/Oct 2010] Volume 54, Issue 5, pp 050503-1-(8) (Abstract Only)
Turin Shroud, The: from the photo to the three-dimensional by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [277k] (illustrated with 9 photographs)
In this paper from the May 2000 Shroud Imaging Conference in San Felice Circeo, Italy, Aldo has perfected an established photographic enhancement technique to clearly visualize the dimensional characteristics encoded in the Shroud image. See the next paper for a detailed description of his technique
Turin Shroud and Photo-Relief Technique, The by Aldo Guerreschi (.pdf format) [261k] (illustrated with 8 photographs)
In this paper Aldo explains the technique in detail. This and the previous paper overlap in some areas, but the combined information is so critical to the understanding of this important Shroud image property that I am including both on the site. Two must-read papers for anyone seriously interested in understanding the science of the image.
Turin Shroud hands’ region analysis reveals the scrotum and a part of the right thumb by Liberato De Caro and Cinzia Giannini, Journal of Cultural Heritage, Available online 9 November 2016. Here is the Abstract:
"The Turin Shroud is traditionally considered the burial cloth of Jesus Christ, but carbon-14 analysis indicated a medieval date. Here, a digital restoring of the hands’ region of the Turin Shroud image has allowed to visualize anatomic details never seen before: the scrotum and part of the right hand's thumb. Additionally, the unnatural position of the right hand's thumb, adjacent to the palm of the hand, positioned below it and, consequently, almost fully hidden except for its protruding end, seems to denote a stress, which could be consequent to crucifixion. These results shed new light on the long-lasting scientific debate about the authenticity of the relic since the absence of the thumbs has been considered as one of the most important indirect proof that the Turin Shroud wrapped the body of a man who was crucified alive."
Turin 2010 - A Personal Report by Barrie Schwortz (.pdf format) [550k] [July 6, 2010] (illustrated with 8 photographs)
Personal Report on the 2010 Exposition of the Shroud.
Turin 2015 - A Personal Report by Barrie Schwortz [16 August 2015] (illustrated with 6 photographs)
Personal Report on the 2015 Exposition of the Shroud.
Two unpublished letters of Secondo Pia about the 1898 Shroud photography by Roberto Falcinelli [May 2010] (From the Proceedings of the 2010 Frascati Conference)
This paper provides interesting insights into the Shroud's first photographer.
Uncovering the sources of DNA found on the Turin Shroud by Gianni Barcaccia, Giulio Galla, Alessandro Achilli, Anna Olivieri & Antonio Torroni - Scientific Reports 5, Article number: 14484, Nature October 5, 2015 [1 November 2015]. Here is an excerpt from the Abstract:
"...Here, we report the main findings from the analysis of genomic DNA extracted from dust particles vacuumed from parts of the body image and the lateral edge used for radiocarbon dating. Several plant taxa native to the Mediterranean area were identified as well as species with a primary center of origin in Asia, the Middle East or the Americas but introduced in a historical interval later than the Medieval period. Regarding human mitogenome lineages, our analyses detected sequences from multiple subjects of different ethnic origins, which clustered into a number of Western Eurasian haplogroups, including some known to be typical of Western Europe, the Near East, the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian sub-continent. Such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East. Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the linen cloth."
Urfa, Turkey: the urgent need for an archaeological survey of the town that (arguably) was the Shroud's home for nearly a thousand years. by Ian Wilson (.pdf format) [41k]
From the 1999 Richmond Conference.
Veil of Manoppello: Work of Art or Authentic Relic?, The by Roberto Falcinelli (.pdf format) [349k] [September 2005] (From the 3rd International Dallas Conference) (Includes 30 photographs and illustrations)
In this interesting article, Roberto Falcinelli, a professional photographer and member of the Centro Diocesano di Sindonologia "Giulio Ricci" in Rome, investigates the Veil of Manoppello, believed by some to be a miraculous image and by others, simply a painting. Although not specifically about the Shroud, it has certain parallels that make it worthy of interest.
Veil of Veronica, The: Fact or Fiction? by John Iannone (.pdf format) [61k] [December 2009]
In this interesting article, John Iannone, noted Shroud scholar and author, explores the legend of the Veil from an historical and traditional basis. He then examines the opposing claims that the actual veil is in Rome or in Manoppello and reaches some interesting conclusions.
Verification of the Nature and Causes of the Photo-negative Images on the Shroud of Lirey-Chambery-Turin
by Nicholas P.L. Allen
This is an in-depth article with complete text and illustrations. Dr. Allen, who concludes that the Shroud is an actual photograph produced using 13th century technology, is the author of a soon to be released book on the subject. He appeared recently in a BBC television program where he demonstrated his theories and results. This is one of a number of Shroud-related articles on Dr. Allen's website. (NOTE: This link is no longer available.)
Walter C. McCrone and the Max Frei Sticky Tapes of 1978: A Background Study by Paul C. Maloney
This article encapsulates and updates the much more extensive paper Paul originally presented at the 1999 Richmond Shroud Conference titled, History of Botanical Research on the Shroud of Turin. [Editor's Note: That paper is currently not available online but was published in the Proceedings of the 1999 Shroud of Turin International Research Conference - Richmond, Virginia - WALSH, Bryan J. (Ed.) - Magisterium Press, Glen Allen, Virginia (USA) 2000].
Was The Shroud In Languedoc During The Missing Years? by Jack Markwardt
This paper presents an interesting historical hypothesis. It was first presented at the May 1997 Nice Symposium in Nice, France and can also be reached via the "Shroud Conferences & Symposia" page of this website. It focuses upon the "Missing Years" in the history of the Shroud of Turin, presents a hypothetical reconstruction of several of the more mysterious chapters in the cloth's biography, and suggests that the sindonic path between Constantinople and Lirey runs directly through Languedoc.
Workshop Of Paduan Scientific Analysis on the Shroud (WOPSAS 2015) - Edited by Giulio Fanti - Padua University, Italy, June 9, 2015
This is a link to the MATEC Web of Conferences website for the WOPSAS 2015 Shroud conference and includes open access to ten papers presented by various authors at the workshop on topics including Shroud dating, DNA analysis, medical news, body image and more.
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